Analysis of the Relationship between the Sense of Place and the Level of Social Security the Case Study of Abshouran neighborhood, Kermanshah City

Document Type : Research article


1 Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Jundi-Shapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran

2 Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran



The objective of current research is to examine the relationship between the sense of place and the level of social security. This study's method is descriptive-analytic in terms of its objective, the purpose for which it is applied, and the quantitative data type. The statistical population of all residents of Kermanshah city's western Abshouran neighborhood (Sabzeh Square to Modares) (according to the 2016 Kermanshah census, the total population of this part of the neighborhood is 290 people, equivalent to 73 households), of which 166 people were chosen as sample size using the Cochran formula and random sampling. According to the nature and type of data, descriptive and inferential statistics are utilized for data analysis. The researched variables are described in this way by collecting the frequency and percentage, and in the field of inferential statistics, SPSS software is used to evaluate the association between variables and multivariate regression test to examine the link between these variables. Pearson's test results show a connection and a moderate association between the variables of sense of place and the characteristics of social security. Thus, the regression test findings suggest that 0.42 of the changes in social dimensions are connected to sense of place variables. The study's findings also show that there is a two-way relationship between the dimensions of sense of place and social security, such that as sense of place increases, so does social security, and vice versa, as social security increases, so does sense of place
Extended Abstract
To be able to find peace and walk on the path of happiness and development, one of the primary and basic needs of human beings for a desirable life and to achieve happiness and perfection is to have security in its various dimensions and types, such as mental and psychological, societal and physical, economic, etc. (Tavakolnia et al., 2019: 35-37). As a result, security is a fundamental category in every social system, and governments prioritize security in society. As a result, there is no doubt that security in society is one of the most critical markers of human and social development (Jaafari et al., 2018: 62-63). Given that security is a complex subject with various and multiple social, cultural, and economic components in every community, the significance of locational factors and environmental influences in providing security should not be overlooked. Some places have greater opportunities for crime because of their unique physical structure and the economic and social qualities of their population, while others have fewer. In many circumstances, the type of architecture of the physical space, the functional role that the place plays, and the societal characteristics of a place all contribute to the safety or danger of urban spaces (Rasuli Shurestan, 2017: 35). In this context, the spatial and functional structure of the neighborhood or city is effective in the occurrence of crime, and changes in spatial characteristics cause the formation of specific spatial and temporal patterns of delinquency (Foster & Giles-Corti, 2008: 41). In recent years, one of the issues that have received a lot of attention is the physical environment and its effects on people's daily lives. As a result, a sense of place is a collection of symbols, meanings, and environmental features that a person or group senses consciously or unconsciously from a given place. This meaning, which is frequently based on a person's emotional connection to their surroundings, manifests itself in design in the shape of a physical look (Kamoli & Azmati, 2018: 242). The sense of place develops instinctively as a result of settling in the environment, being familiar with the physical aspects, and belonging to an environment, and it emphasizes the quality of the environment's positive attributes (Damaria et al, 2018: 5-7). A sense that includes both physical and psychological aspects and is a macro concept that expresses the relationship between a person and a place (Kolodziejski, 2014: 48). In addition, coordinating the appropriate function of the person with an architectural space led to emotional perception, pleasure, and personal-social security, as well as identity and belonging to the location (Lesman et al., 2021:68-70). In fact, people's sense of place is the cause of interpersonal sense, neighborhood connections, and finally the behavioral basis of community and social security (Brown et al, 2004: 361).
Kermanshah, as one of Iran's metropolises, is also worth considering, because metropolises tend to have more deviations and social anomalies. Due to its growth in size (horizontal and vertical) and population, Kermanshah has seen more crime in recent years. The lack of security and a sense of place are two of the most significant social issues and problems in Kermanshah's plan for improvement and modernization. Abshouran neighborhood is also facing problems such as physical decaying, social-cultural incompatibility of the urban fabric. This study is intended to first investigate the relationship between a sense of place and social security dimensions. It is also intended to examine it in the Abshouran neighborhood of Kermanshah. In order to achieve this objective, the following question is raised: What is the relationship between the dimensions of a sense of place and social security? How significant is this relationship?
In general, the current research method is descriptive-analytical in terms of its purpose and how it is applied, as well as quantitative data type. For data collection, an indirect method of desk studies and direct field studies (observation and questionnaire) were used, so that desk studies were used to reach the theoretical foundations of the research, and field perception was used to explore the relationships and how they interact between the variables of interest. According to the census of 2016 of Kermanshah city, the population of the western area of the Abshouran neighborhood (Sabzeh-Meydan to Modares) is 290 people (73 families). Among them, 166 participants were selected as a sample size using Cochran's formula and random sampling. According to the nature and type of data, descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were utilized for data analysis. In this approach, each variable is described by obtaining the frequency and percentage. In the field of inferential statistics, SPSS software is employed in the form of a Pearson correlation test and a multivariate regression test.
Results and discussion
The current study's findings back up prior research. This means that by focusing on the physical components of the Abshouran neighborhood and promoting landuses that encourage attendance in the space, improving the situation of space syntax and reducing physical and social segregation, and strengthening interaction networks among the neighborhood's residents, we can expect a significant improvement in sense of place. As a result, the social security component in the framework of the community will increase.
Pearson's test results show a connection and moderate association between sense of place variables and social security characteristics. Thus, the regression test findings suggest that 0.42 of social dimension changes are connected to the sense of place variables. The study's findings also show that there is a two-way relationship between the dimensions of sense of place and social security, such that as sense of place increases, so does social security, and vice versa, as social security increases, so does sense of place. In this regard, recommendations include using physical design tools to increase security in the neighborhood context, using active 24-hour land use for social monitoring during the night hours in the neighborhood space, and emphasizing the supervision of urban authorities and police in the neighborhood to reduce social anomalies in order to increase residents' sense of place and social security.
There is no funding support.
Authors’ Contribution
All of the authors approved the content of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.


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