عنوان مقاله [English]
Today, change in approach to development has caused that human concepts such as citizen participation are considered as the main factor for development of cities. These transformations in literature of urban planning in developing countries (including Iran) have changed the ideas of most experts in these countries. Thus, they have emphasized on importance of participation to the realization of urban development. But despite this emphasis and even restructuring of urban management in Iran (establishment of city councils), still the lack of participation is proposed as one of the major obstacles to achievement of development. However, with these changes even the concept of participation in Iran cities is still unrealized well and lack of popular participation is a key issue in these cities. Therefore, in the process of planning, decision making and implementation of a plan, people are not involved or play just a minor role. The present study also seeks to explain this issue that why despite the emphasis of most experts and restructuring of urban management in Iran, there is not still a suitable participation between the main components of the city (Citizens, City Council as an expression of civil society and municipality as the governing body of the city). In this study participation on quality of communication the three pillars of the city with each other based on Jurgen Habermas's theory of communicative action under review. City of Gorgan has been investigated as the study area in this research.
The study will be performed in three stages of Description, explanations, analysis and suggestions. In the first stage the current status of the study area is identified and described. In the second stage, this current status in the study area (city of Gorgan) is explained based on theory of communicative action. Suggestions are also proposed with the critical and emancipator approach. With this interpretation, it can be said that in this study research method is combination in the form of multiple quantitative and qualitative methodologies.
Results and Discussion
Results of the study in stage of description indicate that in existing space of Gorgan, citizens have potentially high willingness to participate, but this mentality is not actualized in field of action and institutional participation rates are low. They (Citizens) are also unfamiliar with the concept and philosophy of creation of the City Council as an expression of civil society. The results of the study in the stage explanation, according to Jürgen Habermas's theory of communicative action, indicate that not equipped space with the principles of the theory of communicative action in Gorgan has caused the distance amongst the main pillars of the city (Citizens, City Council as an expression of civil society and municipality as the governing body of the city (. This space is characterized by lack of trust. It is also a major obstacle to the realization of formal and institutional participation. The results of the study in the analysis stage indicate that primacy of modernism and modernization on modernity has caused manifestations of modernism and modernization (city councils) in this city. The suggestions also emphasize that formation of space in city of Gorgan with the principles of theory of communicative action can be fertile field for the main pillars of the city to each other, increase trust and also provide the necessary basis for transmission meaning of the City Council as an expression of civil society. (Fig. 1)
Historical and culturalbackground
Fig. 1. Modern trends in the territories north and south
Generally, it can be said that for realization of participation in social and cultural contexts it is required to provide modernity in developed countries in these contexts. In developing countries (including Iran) because of cultural discontinuity and modernism, these concepts derived from modernity thoughts such as participation will be faced with the duality. Under the influence of this duality despite the emphasis of most experts and restructuring of urban management (establishment of city councils) in Iran still the lack of participation is proposed as one of the major obstacles to achievement of urban development.