سنجش احساس امنیت در بافت محلات شهری با تأکید بر پارامترهای اجتماعی (مطالعۀ موردی: منطقۀ 6 شهرداری اصفهان)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی - کاربردی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه برنامه‌ریزی شهری دانشکدة علوم جغرافیایی و برنامه‌ریزی، دانشگاه اصفهان

2 کارشناس ارشد برنامه‌ریزی شهری دانشکدة علوم جغرافیایی و برنامه‌ریزی، دانشگاه اصفهان

چکیده

برحسب رویکرد جامعه‌شناسی امنیت، نمی‌توان امنیت را به‌تنهایی به‌عنوان یک وضعیت بدون ارتباط با عوامل اجتماعی آن تحلیل کرد. درنتیجه، هدف اصلی این پژوهش سنجش میزان اثرگذاری عوامل اجتماعی بر احساس امنیت در منطقة 6 شهرداری اصفهان و ارائة راهکارهایی به‌منظور حذف عوامل ناامنی در منطقه است. روش تحقیق در این بررسی توصیفی-تحلیلی است. بدین منظور، با استفاده از نظریه‌های مربوط به موضوع تحقیق، شاخص‌های اجتماعی مورد نظر به‌دست آمد. شایان ذکر است متغیرهای تحقیق از نظر روایی و پایایی در سطحی قابل‌قبول ارزیابی شد. براساس فرمول کوکران، حجم نمونه 382 نفر درنظر گرفته شد و پرسشنامه‌ها از طریق نمونه‌گیری تصادفی خوشه‌ای بین شهروندان منطقة 6 شهرداری اصفهان توزیع شد. نتایج بررسی‌ها نشان داد احساس امنیت در منطقة 6 شهرداری اصفهان در سطحی پایین قرار دارد (83/17-=t) و بین عوامل اجتماعی و احساس امنیت شهروندان در محلات منطقة 6 رابطة معناداری وجود دارد. همچنین، مشخص شد عوامل اجتماعی مؤثر بر احساس امنیت بین محلات در منطقة 6 شهرداری اصفهان تفاوت معناداری دارد؛ بنابراین، با شناسایی این عوامل در محلات و مشخص‌شدن میزان اثرگذاری آن‌ها و شناسایی ضعف‌های محلات می‌توان با اقداماتی مؤثر در پیشگیری از جرایم، تدابیری را تدوین و اجرا کرد. به همین منظور، با توجه به نتایج آزمون‌ها، در پایان پیشنهاد‌هایی برای بهبود وضعیت محلات ارائه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Measuring Sense of Security in Urban Neighborhoods with an Emphasis on Social Parameters (Case Study: The 6th Region of Isfahan Municipality)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Jamal Mohammadi 1
  • Elahe Khanmohammadi 2
1 Associate Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Geographic and Planning Science, University of Isfahan
2 MA in Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Geographic and Planning Science, University of Isfahan
چکیده [English]

Introduction
One of the ways of provisional control and crimes prevention and, therefore, increase in the sense of security is to reduce the chance of crime by strengthening social relationships at the level of urban neighborhoods. Many theorists have commented on the relation between social factors and the level of the sense of security. Merry realized that the residents who lacked any kind of bond or social connection were more afraid of crimes. According to Jacob's theory, the feeling affiliated with the neighborhood and being committed to it plays a more important role relative to the presence of police in controlling the situation of the neighborhood and its security. In addition, Jan Gehl believes that monitoring urban spaces via increase in the residents' presence in the public or in other words, unofficial monitoring is the major condition to provide security. In relation to density, Georg Simmel believes that as the population density of cities increases, the intensity of social control decreases. Therefore, the sense of loneliness and anonymity of citizens is increased and their individuality is threatened. In fact, according to the approach of the sociology of security, one cannot analyze security alone as a situation without communicating with its social context. Therefore, by studying theoretical foundations of the research, this study has considered three social indicators (identity, social monitoring and population density) as the theoretical model of the research. The aim of this study is to investigate the sense of security to measure the role of social factors in the sense of security. This helps us classify neighborhoods in terms of social vulnerability and present suggestions to strengthen social factors to increase the sense of security in neighborhoods of District 6 of Isfahan Municipality.
 
Methodology
The statistical population of this study is 13 neighborhoods of District 6 in Isfahan Municipality. According to Cochran's formula, a sample size of 382 subjects was considered and to select the samples in statistical population, cluster random sampling was used. To determine validity, related experts were interviewed and to determine reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used. The results show that the sense of security and social indicators are acceptable at alpha coefficients of 0.852 and 0.846, respectively. To analyze data, SPSS, Excel, and ARCGIS were employed. To investigate the indicators, a number of items were designed in the form of Likert scale and they were distributed among neighborhoods based on the obtained sample size.
 
Results and Discussion

The sense of security in District 6 of Isfahan Municipality

 
Table 2. the indicator of citizens' sense of security in District 6





Indicator


Test value=3


 
Evaluation of indicator




t-value


p-value


Mean difference


Confidence interval 0.95




lower limit­


upper limit




Sense of security
 


-17.83


0.000


-0.707


-0.78


-0.62


Low
 





Source: Findings of the study
 

The role of social factors in the sense of security

 
Table 4. the status of security of neighborhoods in terms of social factors





Factor


Test value=3


 
Evaluation of indicator




t-value


p-value


Mean difference


Confidence interval 0.95




lower limit­


upper limit




Social


-3.727


0.000


-0.143


-0.21


-0.60


Weak





Source: Findings of the study
 
Table 5. significance of the relation between social factors and the sense of security





Explanation


Sense of security


Physical factor




Sense of security


Correlation coefficient
Significance level
The number of observations


 
1
 


0.227**
0.001
195




Social factor


Correlation coefficient
Significance level
The number of observations


0.151*
0.035
195


 
1





Source: Findings of the study
*Significant at 95%, ** significant at 99%
 

the difference of social factors affecting the sense of security in neighborhoods of the district 6.

 
Table 6. social factors among neighborhoods





Factors


Variance


Sum of squares


Degree of freedom


Mean square


f-value


p-value




 
Social


Inter-group


31.549


12


5.691


57.357


0.000




Intra-group


33.540


182


0.064




Total


369.090


194


 





 
Table 7. Classification of neighborhoods in homogeneous groups based on social factor of security





Significance level of classes at 0.05 alpha level


Neighborhoods




3


2


1




 


 


1.751


Shahid Keshvari




 


 


2.349


Abshar




 


 


2.430


Hezar Jarib




 


 


2.565


Kooye Emam




 


2.568


 


Ayineh Khaneh




 


2.903


 


Sa'adat Abad




 


2.985


 


Mosalla Mosque




 


3.008


 


Feyz




3.199


 


 


Hemmat Abad




3.233


 


 


Denart




3.356


 


 


Takht-e Foolad




3.375


 


 


Radan




3.408


 


 


Fizidan





Source: Findings of the study
 
Conclusion 
Results of the study showed that the sense of security in District 6 is very low and social characteristics affect the sense of security in District 6 of Isfahan Municipality. According to the results of Tukey's range test, it could be said that Shahid Keshvari, Abshar, Hezar Jarib, and Kooye Emam neighborhoods are classified, respectively, in the weak class. Ayineh Khaneh, Sa'adat Abad, Masjed Mosalla, and Feyz neighborhoods are in the middle class, and Hemmat Abad, Denart, Takht-e Foolad, Radan and Fizidan are classified in a better class in terms of social factors. Some strategies to strengthen social relations in line with increase in the sense of security especially in vulnerable neighborhoods are stated as follows:
- To focus on historical and cultural heritage in neighborhoods for increase in the sense of belonging and to design new elements, to strengthen natural territories and specify the border of neighborhoods using objective and subjective symbols, and to increase neighborhood bindings via strengthening neighborhood relationships.
- To strengthen the sense of public control through promoting the culture of accountability and controlling space by the citizens. This is to increase the possibility of supervision by designing buildings overlooking public areas, to install benches and platforms for sitting in susceptible areas and routes, and to increase public monitoring through creation of recreation spaces in neighborhoods.
- To divide neighborhoods into sub-neighborhood units, to direct planning to prevent extra vacancy of spaces in special hours, especially at night or overcrowding of spaces, to reduce population density via preventing the spread of vertical development and preventing the microfilming of neighborhood textures by adopting non-violent policies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • urban security
  • social parameters
  • the 6th region of Isfahan municipality
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