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The role of geomorphic parameters in Selection of Solid Waste Landfill Site (Case Study: Firooz abad city)
Mohsen pourkhosravani: Assistant Professor, Department of Geography Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Kerman Iran
Behnam Moqani Rahimi: Assistant Professor, Department of Geography Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Kerman Iran
Zahra porbar: M.A. Natural geography, Lecturer of Payam Noor university
Urban population has increased day by day and respectably the amount of waste produced in the world has a rising trend. So each day the management of facing this important issue become more complex and at the same time more urgent. Because nowadays landfill without considering environmental issues is a serious threat to the survival of living things including humans, so choosing the suitable place for Sanitary landfill is essential.In this regard, the utilization of urban waste, are various methods such as Cumulative, burning outdoors, composting, use in animal nutrition, the use of tooling incinerator and …, but still sanitary burial the most common method to landfill. In Iran, Solid Waste Landfill Site often done in the comprehensive urban plans, but systematic and environmental approach of issue, completely inconspicuous and just determined by relying on one or more indicators burial place. In this regard, due to the high population growth and physical development of Firuzabad in Fars province that leads to the production of about 100 tons of solid waste daily in the city, and according to the current inappropriate location of the landfill in this city that caused pollution of water and fertile ground resources, this research trying to determine the optimal sites for burial of waste in this city by selecting the criteria of geomorphological, hydro-climate, land use and the distance from communication lines.
Firozabad city in southwestern Fars province and is located within a hundred kilometers from the city of Shiraz. This city is limited from the north to the cities of Shiraz and Kazeroun, from West to Farashband, south of the city of Ghir and Karzin and the East to the city of Jahrom. The average height of Firozabad Plain is 1320 meter and an average gradient is Five percent. Method of this research is descriptive-analytic method and was examined by using field and library data (documents, maps, satellite images ...) in the study area. Then fuzzy logic to determine the value and weight of various affected criteria in the location of landfill in Arc GIS was used to design a model for choosing the landfill. Fuzzy logic is capable to formulate many concepts and variables and systems that are vague, and provide the basis for reasoning, controlling, and decision making under uncertainty condition. The degree of membership, union and intersection, complementation, multiplication, addition, and gamma are the basic powers of this combined model. In the process of locating suitable land for waste disposal, conceptual model and influencing variables in the model identified like the communication network and it’s privacy, infrastructures and equipments, density and per capita, production, consumption, and recycling,…, and defined and explained after definition the information layers, such as topography, slope, geology, soil science, fault obstacles to the development, communication network of rural settlements, surface water. Preparation of these layers in the form of topology, correction and editing, geometrically correcting of images, maps … was performed and after definition, the proper method of combining and identifying the integrating functions was done and after tabular analysis the database integrated, location detected and evaluated.
Results and discussion
Slope, aspect and topographical features of the area, are the most important geomorphic parameters affecting locate optimal areas for landfills in different areas. Also, the location chosen for the landfill must have the correct distance from permanent and seasonal rivers. In addition, the position of groundwater, aqueducts and wells should also be examined.As they may leakage of waste is polluting water resources. In general, for ease, reducing transport time and costs, landfill should as much as possible with the main road and is near existing roads and paths. Also the landfill should be having adequate distance from all lands that special user. it should be noted that Without the use of a powerful system as a secure tool that have the ability of using multiple layers of information and analysis, the possibility of solving this problem will not be possible. In decision-making problems and GIS due to the vast capabilities of the ability to integrate and overlay layers, the best appropriate and reasonable choice to find the perfect place and related technology to GIS for landfill is using that. That is why after standardize the maps the steps of combining the layers used begins in order to access an appropriate place for the landfill. At first, the obtained maps from the previous step re-weighed, and all the maps are converted into a single map that shows the location of localized. At this stage the impact of each of the obtained maps determined by their impacts on the location. So that the total weight of study layers impact should be 100 and eventually the final map is prepared.
In the present study by regarding the criteria used, the fuzzy logic was used to determine the value and weight of different criteria to locate a solid waste disposal site in Firozabad that responds to future needs. Different layers of information were combined and appropriate and inappropriate areas were identified for landfill. Final map show the different areas according to their ability of creating the landfill. There is the possibility of merging due to the proximity to other areas, and thus the base of installation and related equipment for recycling and composting plant also provides. Finally, after the evaluation carried out and overlaying the weighted layers, the best option is the East and North East, and partly the northwest region. Because in this place many environmental parameters for solid waste landfill are appropriate, and there is possible current and future investments in this field. There is evidence that some places are determined as inappropriate place which are mainly on the fertile plains with high permeability and good areas have been set mainly in the foothills that have the thickness of the soil and far from population centers, suitable land for agricultural and remote areas which are sensitive. According to the Research results, the central part of the city Firoozabad the most difficult places to make up the landfill.
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- Gbanie, P.S; Tengbe, B.P., Momoh, S.J., Medo J., Kabba, T, S, Victor. (2013), Modelling land ﬁ ll location using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA): Case study Bo, Southern Sierra Leone. Applied Geography, num 36: 3-12.
- Geng, Y., Zhu, Q., & Haight, M. (2007), Planning for integrated solid waste management at the industrial Park level: A case of Tianjin, China. Waste Management, 27(1), 141-150.
- Gorsevski, P.V., Donevska, K.R., Mitrovski, C.D., & Frizado, J.P. (2012), Integrating multi-criteria evaluation techniques with geographic information systems for landﬁll site selection: A case study using ordered weighted average. Waste Management, 32: 287–296.
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