ارزیابی مکان‌های بهینه برای دفن زباله‌های شهری (مطالعۀ موردی: شهر فیروزآباد)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی - کاربردی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار ژئومورفولوژی، گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، کرمان، ایران

2 کارشناس‌ارشد جغرافیای طبیعی، مدرس دانشگاه پیام نور

3 استادیار جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، کرمان، ایران

چکیده

گسترش شهرها و افزایش جمعیت شهری در سال‌های اخیر، موجب افزایش مصرف و درنتیجه افزایش تولید پسماند در مناطق شهری شده است. از طرفی مکان‌یابی نامناسب دفن این پسماندها مشکلات زیست‌محیطی زیادی را به وجود آورده است. لذا این تحقیق که تحقیقی توصیفی- تحلیلی است، با درنظرگرفتن معیارهای ژئومورفولوژی، هیدرواقلیم، کاربری اراضی و فاصله از خطوط ارتباطی و با استفاده از منطق فازی و سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS)، محل‌های مناسب برای دفن پسماند در شهر فیروزآباد را بررسی کرده است. بر همین اساس لایه‌های مختلف اطلاعاتی با یکدیگر تلفیق شدند. همچنین محل فعلی دفن زبالۀ شهر فیروزآباد بررسی و تحلیل شد. سپس با لحاظ‌کردن همۀ معیارهای مورد نظر، حریم‌ها و حدود دسترسی آن‌ها با استفاده از نقشه‌ها و سایر اطلاعات، مکان‌های بهینه برای دفن پسماندها در منطقۀ مطالعاتی پیشنهاد شد. درنهایت پس از ارزیابی‌های به‌عمل‌آمده و هم‌پوشانی لایه‌های وزن‌دهی‌شده، بخش‌های جنوب شرق و شمال شرق منطقه، به‌عنوان مناسب‌ترین مکان‌ها برای احداث سایت دفع زباله پیشنهاد می‌شوند. زیرا در این مکان برای دفن پسماندهای جامد، بسیاری از پارامترهای محیطی در وضعیتی کاملاً مناسب است و امکان سرمایه‌گذاری کنونی و آتی در این قسمت وجود دارد. بر اساس شواهد موجود مکان‌هایی به‌عنوان مکان نامناسب تعیین شده‌اند که به طور عمده روی دشت‌های حاصلخیز و با نفوذپذیری بالا قرار دارند و مناطق خوب به طور عمده در تپه‌ماهورها که ضخامت خاک بیشتر بوده و از مراکز جمعیتی و نیز زمین‌های مناسب کشاورزی و مناطق حساس دور هستند، تعیین شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The role of geomorphic parameters in Selection of Solid Waste Landfill Site (Case Study: Firooz Abad City)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Pourkhosravani 1
  • Zahra Porbar 2
  • Behnam Moqani Rahimi 3
1 Assistant Professor of Geography, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
2 MA in physical geography, Lecturer of Payam Noor University
3 Assistant Professor of Geography, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Urban population is increasing day by day and consequently the amount of waste produced in the world has a rising trend. Thus, each day the management of this important issue is becoming more complex and at the same time more urgent. This is important because nowadays landfill development without regarding environmental issues is a serious threat to the survival of living things including humans. Therefore, selection of the suitable place for Sanitary landfill is essential. In this regard, the utilization of urban waste can be performed by a variety of methods such as cumulative, burning outdoors, compostion, use as animal nutrition, the use of tooling incinerator and so on. However, sanitary burial is still the most common method to landfill. In Iran, Solid Waste Landfill Site selection is often performed in the comprehensive urban plans, but systematic and environmental approach of issue is partly disregarded. These sites are just determined by relying on one or more indicators of burial place. High population growth and physical development of Firuzabad in Fars province leads to the production of about 100 tons of solid waste daily in the city. On the other hand, the current inappropriate location of the landfill in this city caused pollution of water and fertile ground resources; this research is trying to determine the optimal sites for burial of waste in this city. The selection criteria are geomorphological, hydro-climate, land use and the distance from communication lines.
 
Methodology
Firozabad city in southwestern Fars province is located within a hundred kilometers from the city of Shiraz. This city is limited from the north to the cities of Shiraz and Kazeroun, from West to Farashband, from south to the city of Ghir and Karzin and from the East to the city of Jahrom. The average height of Firozabad Plain is 1320 meter and an average slope is five percent. This research is conducted by descriptive-analytic method and was examined using field and library data (documents, maps, and satellite images) in the study area. Then, to determine the values and weights of various criteria in the location of landfill, we have used fuzzy logic in ArcGIS  to design a model for choosing the landfill. Fuzzy logic is capable to formulate many concepts and variables and the systems that are vague and provide the basis for reasoning, controlling, and decision making under uncertainty conditions. The degree of membership, union and intersection, complementation, multiplication, addition, and gamma are the basic powers of this combined model. In the process of suitable land for waste disposal, conceptual model and influencing variables in the model are identified. The variables are the communication network and  privacy, infrastructures and equipment, production, consumption, and recycling. The models are defined and explained after definition the information layers including topography, slope, geology, soil science, fault obstacles to the development, communication network of rural settlements, and surface water. These layers in the form of topology, correction and editing, geometrically corrections of images and mapshave been performed. After definition, the proper method for integration functions was identified and after tabular analysis the database has been detected and evaluated for the landfill site.
 
Results and discussion
 
Slope, aspect and topographical features of the study area are the most important geomorphic parameters affecting optimal areas for landfills in different areas. The location selected for the landfill must have the correct distance for permanent and seasonal rivers. In addition, the position of groundwater, aqueducts and wells should also be examined for the purpose. In general, for convenyence and reducing transport time and costs, the landfill should be located near the existing roads and paths. The landfill should be in adequate distance from all lands for special user. It should be noted that without the use of a powerful system as a secure tool that have the ability to use multiple layers of information and analysis, the possibility of solving this problem will not be possible. In decision-making problems and GIS due to the vast capabilities of the ability to integrate and overlay layers, the best appropriate and reasonable choice to find the perfect place and related technology is use of of GIS for landfill. That is why after standardization of the maps the steps of combining the layers begins to access an appropriate place for the landfill. At first, the obtained maps from the previous step are re-weighed, and all the maps are converted into a single map that shows the location. At this stage, the impact of each of the obtained maps is determined by their impacts on the location. The total weight of study layers should be 100 and to prepare eventually the final map.
 
Conclusion
In the present study, the fuzzy logic is used to determine the values and weights of different criteria to select optimized areas for solid waste disposal site in Firozabad so that it has the ability to responds to future needs. Different layers of information have been combined and appropriate and inappropriate areas have been identified for landfill. Final map shows the different areas according to their ability of creating the landfill. There is the possibility to use the proximity to other areas. Thus, the base of installation and related equipment for recycling and compostion plant is also provided. Finally, after the evaluation and overlay of the weighted layers, the best option is located in the East and North East, and partly the northwest region. In this place, many environmental parameters for solid waste landfill are appropriate and there are possible current and future investments in this field. There is the evidence that some places are determined as inappropriate places mainly on the fertile plains with high permeability and good areas. The areas are mainly in the foothills that have the required thickness of the soil and far from population centers. This is suitable land for agricultural uses which are sensitive. According to the research results, the central part of the Firoozabad City  has the most difficult places to make the landfill.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • landfill
  • Site selection
  • Firoozabad
  • urban waste management
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  3. حیدرزاده، نیما (1382)، معیارهای مکان‌یابی محل دفن مواد زاید جامد شهری، چاپ دوم، تهران: انتشارات سازمان شهرداری‌های کشور.
  4. خورشید‌دوست، محمد‌علی؛ عادلی، زهرا (1388)، «کاربرد عوامل ژئومرفولوژیک در مکان‌یابی دفن پسماندهای شهری»، فصلنامۀ جغرافیای طبیعی، سال دوم، شمارۀ 5، صص 72- 63 .
  5. شهرداری فیروزآباد، طرح جامع شهری، شهر فیروزآباد، (1392).
  6. سعیدنیا، احمد (1378)، کتاب سبز شهرداری: مواد زائد جامد شهری، جلد هفتم، تهران: انتشارات سازمان شهرداری‌های کشور.
  7. مهتابی‌اوغانی، مرضیه؛ نجفی، اکبر؛ یونسی، حبیب‌اله (1392)، «مقایسۀ دو روش فرایند تحلیل سلسله‌مراتبی و تأسیس در مکان‌یابی محل دفن پسماندهای شهری (مطالعۀ موردی: انتخاب محل دفن پسماند شهری کرج)»، مجلۀ سلامت و محیط، انجمن علمی بهداشت محیط ایران، شمارۀ 3، صص ‌352-341.
  8. هادیانی، زهره؛ احدنژاد روشتی، محسن؛ کاظمی‌زاد، شمس‌الله؛ شاه‌علی، امیر (1391)، «مکان‌یابی مراکز دفن پسماندهای جامد شهری با استفاده از منطق فازی در محیط GIS (مطالعۀ موردی: شهر زنجان)»، مجلۀ فضای جغرافیایی، دورۀ 12، شمارۀ 40، صص 116-133.
    1. Costa, I., Massard, G., & Agarwal, A. (2010), “Waste management policies for industrial symbiosis development”: case studies in European countries. Journal of Cleaner Production, 18(8), 815-822.
10. Eastman, J.R. (1997), IDRISI for windows users guide, version 3.2, Clark labs for cartographic technology and Geographic Analysis, Clark University.

11. Gbanie, P.S; Tengbe, B.P., Momoh, S.J., Medo J., Kabba, T, S, Victor. (2013), Modelling land fi ll location using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA): Case study Bo, Southern Sierra Leone. Applied Geography, num 36: 3-12.

12. Geng, Y., Zhu, Q., & Haight, M. (2007), “Planning for integrated solid waste management at the industrial Park level: A case of Tianjin, China”. Waste Management, 27(1), 141-150.

13. Gorsevski, P.V., Donevska, K.R., Mitrovski, C.D., & Frizado, J.P. (2012), “Integrating multi-criteria evaluation techniques with geographic information systems for landfill site selection: A case study using ordered weighted average”. Waste Management, 32: 287–296.

14. Hendrix, W. and bukly. D. )1992(, “Use of GIS for selection of sites for land application of sewage waste”, journal of soil and water conservation.

15. Kao, J. and H. Lin (1996), “Multifactor spatial analysis for landfill siting”. Journal of Environmental Engineering, V. 122, N10, Oct 1996, P. 902 –908.

16. Lin, H., J. kao, K.Li, H.H.Hwang (1996), Fuzzy GIS assisted landfill siting analysis. Proceedings of International Conference on solid waste technology and management.

17. Malczewsk, J., (1999), GIS and multicriteria decision analysis. New York: John Wiley & sons Inc.

18. Vastava, Sh and nathawat. )2003(, selection of potential waste disposal sites around Ranchi urban complex using remote sensing and GIS techniques, urban planning, map Asia conference. International Conference on solid waste technology and management.

 

 

Extended Abstract

The role of geomorphic parameters in Selection of Solid Waste Landfill Site (Case Study: Firooz abad city)

Mohsen pourkhosravani: Assistant Professor, Department of Geography Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Kerman Iran

Behnam Moqani Rahimi: Assistant Professor, Department of Geography Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Kerman Iran

Zahra porbar: M.A. Natural geography, Lecturer of Payam Noor university

 

Introduction

Urban population has increased day by day and respectably the amount of waste produced in the world has a rising trend. So each day the management of facing this important issue become more complex and at the same time more urgent. Because nowadays landfill without considering environmental issues is a serious threat to the survival of living things including humans, so choosing the suitable place for Sanitary landfill is essential.In this regard, the utilization of urban waste, are various methods such as Cumulative, burning outdoors, composting, use in animal nutrition, the use of tooling incinerator and …, but still sanitary burial the most common method to landfill. In Iran, Solid Waste Landfill Site often done in the comprehensive urban plans, but systematic and environmental approach of issue, completely inconspicuous and just determined by relying on one or more indicators burial place. In this regard, due to the high population growth and physical development of Firuzabad in Fars province that leads to the  production of about 100 tons of solid waste daily in the city, and according to the current inappropriate location of the landfill in this city that caused pollution of water and fertile ground resources, this research trying to determine the optimal sites for burial of waste in this city by selecting the criteria of geomorphological, hydro-climate, land use and the distance from communication lines.

Method

Firozabad city in southwestern Fars province and is located within a hundred kilometers from the city of Shiraz. This city is limited from the north to the cities of Shiraz and Kazeroun, from West to Farashband, south of the city of Ghir and Karzin and the East to the city of Jahrom. The average height of Firozabad Plain is 1320 meter and an average gradient is Five percent. Method of this research is descriptive-analytic method and was examined by using field and library data (documents, maps, satellite images ...) in the study area. Then fuzzy logic to determine the value and weight of various affected criteria in the location of landfill in Arc GIS was used to design a model for choosing the landfill. Fuzzy logic is capable to formulate many concepts and variables and systems that are vague, and provide the basis for reasoning, controlling, and decision making under uncertainty condition. The degree of membership, union and intersection, complementation, multiplication, addition, and gamma are the basic powers of this combined model. In the process of locating suitable land for waste disposal, conceptual model and influencing variables in the model identified like the communication network and it’s privacy, infrastructures and equipments, density and per capita, production, consumption, and recycling,…, and defined and explained after definition the information layers, such as topography, slope, geology, soil science, fault obstacles to the development, communication network of rural settlements, surface water. Preparation of these layers in the form of topology, correction and editing, geometrically correcting of images, maps … was performed and after definition, the proper method of combining and identifying the integrating functions was done and after tabular analysis the database integrated, location detected and evaluated.

 

Results and discussion

 

Slope, aspect and topographical features of the area, are the most important geomorphic parameters affecting locate optimal areas for landfills in different areas. Also, the location chosen for the landfill must have the correct distance from permanent and seasonal rivers. In addition, the position of groundwater, aqueducts and wells should also be examined.As they may leakage of waste is polluting water resources. In general, for ease, reducing transport time and costs, landfill should as much as possible with the main road and is near existing roads and paths. Also the landfill should be having adequate distance from all lands that special user. it should be noted that Without the use of a powerful system as a secure tool that have the ability of using multiple layers of information and analysis, the possibility of solving this problem will not be possible. In decision-making problems and GIS due to the vast capabilities of the ability to integrate and overlay layers, the best appropriate and reasonable choice to find the perfect place and related technology to GIS for landfill is using that. That is why after standardize the maps the steps of combining the layers used begins in order to access an appropriate place for the landfill. At first, the obtained maps from the previous step re-weighed, and all the maps are converted into a single map that shows the location of localized. At this stage the impact of each of the obtained maps determined by their impacts on the location. So that the total weight of study layers impact should be 100 and eventually the final map is prepared.

Conclusion

In the present study by regarding the criteria used, the fuzzy logic was used to determine the value and weight of different criteria to locate a solid waste disposal site in Firozabad that responds to future needs. Different layers of information were combined and appropriate and inappropriate areas were identified for landfill. Final map show the different areas according to their ability of creating the landfill. There is the possibility of merging due to the proximity to other areas, and thus the base of installation and related equipment for recycling and composting plant also provides. Finally, after the evaluation carried out and overlaying the weighted layers, the best option is the East and North East, and partly the northwest region. Because in this place many environmental parameters for solid waste landfill are appropriate, and there is possible current and future investments in this field. There is evidence that some places are determined as inappropriate place which are mainly on the fertile plains with high permeability and good areas have been set mainly in the foothills that have the thickness of the soil and far from population centers, suitable land for agricultural and remote areas which are sensitive. According to the Research results, the central part of the city Firoozabad the most difficult places to make up the landfill.

 

References

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  3. Costa, I., Massard, G., & Agarwal, A. (2010), Waste management policies for industrial symbiosis development: case studies in European countries. Journal of Cleaner Production, 18(8), 815-822.
  4. Eastman, J.R. (1997), IDRISI for windows users guide, version 3.2, Clark labs for cartographic technology and Geographic Analysis, Clark University.
  5. Gbanie, P.S; Tengbe, B.P., Momoh, S.J., Medo J., Kabba, T, S, Victor. (2013), Modelling land fi ll location using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA): Case study Bo, Southern Sierra Leone. Applied Geography, num 36: 3-12.
  6. Geng, Y., Zhu, Q., & Haight, M. (2007), Planning for integrated solid waste management at the industrial Park level: A case of Tianjin, China. Waste Management, 27(1), 141-150.
  7. Gorsevski, P.V., Donevska, K.R., Mitrovski, C.D., & Frizado, J.P. (2012), Integrating multi-criteria evaluation techniques with geographic information systems for landfill site selection: A case study using ordered weighted average. Waste Management, 32: 287–296.
  8. Hadiani, Z., Ahadnegad, M., Kazemizad, Sh., Shahali, A., (2012), Centers of municipal solid waste landfill Site selection using fuzzy logic in the GIS (Case Study: Zanjan city), Journal of geographical space, Vol. 12, No. 40. Pp,116-133.
  9. Hendrix, W. and bukly. D. (1992), Use of GIS for selection of sites for land application of sewage waste, journal of soil and water conservation.
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11. Kao, J. and H. Lin (1996), Multifactor spatial analysis for landfill siting. Journal of Environmental Engineering, V. 122, N10, Oct 1996, P. 902 –908.

12. Khorshiddoost, M.A., Adeli, Z., (2008), The use of geomorphologic factors in locating urban waste landfill. Journal of Physical Geography. Vol. 2. No. 5, pp. 72- 63.

13. Lin, H., J. kao, K.Li, H.H.Hwang (1996), Fuzzy GIS assisted landfill siting analysis. Proceedings of International Conference on solid waste technology and management.

14. Mahtabioghani, M., Najafi, A., Yonosi, H., (2013), Comparison of AHP and TOPSIS method in urban waste disposal site selection (Case Study: Karaj urban landfill site selection). Journal of Health and Environment, Iranian Environmental Health Association, No. 3, pp. 352-341.

15. Malczewsk, J., (1999), GIS and multicriteria decision analysis. New York: John Wiley & sons Inc.

16. Saeidnia, A., (1989), Municipalities Green Book: municipal solid waste. Vol. 7, first edition, Tehran: publication of country municipalities’ organisation, pp.114.

17. Vastava, Sh and nathawat.(2003), selection of potential waste disposal sites around Ranchi urban complex using remote sensing and GIS techniques, urban planning, map Asia conference. International Conference on solid waste technology and management.

18. Firozabad municipal, urban master plan, Firozabad city, (1392).