عنوان مقاله [English]
Access to the sea has always been one of the important factors for development of the countries. It is thought that having access to free waters is a necessary condition for a global power. As Alfred Tayer Mahan (1840-1914), one of the paramount American theorists, said that "the power of the sea" was the basis of national strength and it was important to the theory of naval power and its strategy. It was able to make significant changes in the US Navy's policy. The success of some countries such as Britain owes to hacking the hierarchy of governments. Mahan provided solid historical evidence that the emergence and survival of the great powers in the world has always been dependent on the power of the navy through the relative superiority of the seas. Eventually, it can be concluded that ruling on the world involves dominance on the seas. The purpose of this study is to provide a model for the land use planning in the coastal areas of Makran Sea cabed on the existing potential and challenges in Chabahar, Jask, and Konarak with a sustainable regional development and security approach. Therefore, the main objectives of this research are as follows:
• planning for the pattern of landlocked coastal areas of the Makran Sea with a sustainable regional development and security approach;
• Investigating the opportunities and strengths in providing the pattern of landlocked coastal areas of the Makran Sea with sustainable development approach;
• Identification of Makran Competitive Dimensions to other parts of the region;
• Assessing resources and capabilities of the region based on resource-based view;
• Providing effective environmental factors beyond the control of the spatial organization of the region;
• Providing a strategy of suitability between resources and capabilities and external factors;
• Providing internal and external development strategies;
The present study is conducted by descriptive-analytical method. The combined methods have been used for this research. For this purpose, documentary and library studies have been used by a survey method to employ Delphi questionnaire for surveying experts in the field through quantitative and qualitative analysis. The purpose of this study is to provide a model for land locking of the coastal areas of Makran Sea with an approach to security and sustainable regional development.
This research is a multi-stage process that seeks to achieve an optimal pattern. In the first part of the study, we have initially evaluated the four factors of weakness, strength, opportunity and threat in the form of SWOT quality model. Then, for the interpretation, the hierarchical analysis process method was used in Expert Choice software environment. To do this, all four factors have been extracted, coded, processed and weighted. To determine the significance of each criterion, they have been included in the form of 7 indicators of interpretation. To analyze the results, a questionnaire has also been used to analyze the opportunity and strength of the study area. To study the internal strengths and outbound points of the subject, the threats and weaknesses have been identified. The results have been incorporated into the Meta SWOT model and software. The development strategy map and security model have been derived from inward and outward factors. Spatial statistics and spatial analysis methods have also been used in ArcGIS software to show the status and land space and spatial distribution of resources in the study area.
For more than two decades, policy makers, planners and experts in Iran have considered different planning methods such as regional, spatial and land use planning, while emphasizing on the capabilities and resources of the geographical areas and comprehensive development. The plannings are mainly based on regional equilibrium in natural, economic, social, cultural and political fields through formulation of desirable and endogenous strategies in national arena. In Iran, like most of the economies and societies, several regions have a major responsibility for generating income and production, have public services and economic prosperity, and can influence other areas. It should be acknowledged that inequality and deprivation are a direct threat to the security of a society and any development planning without considering the public interest and planning to overcome inequality cannot be taken. Balanced and coordinated development of the regions is a very important prerequisite for achieving sustainable economic development and integrated development of the country (Matric & sevic, 2001). In the exploratory approach to the regional development process, the balance of development and the balanced arrangement of activities in space are of particular importance. Regional inequalities are emerged from two main areas: first, the natural conditions of each geographic region and, secondly, the views of decision makers and economic planners. It is noteworthy that advances in technology reduced, the importance of the first factor and the importance of the second factor has been increased. Therefore, decision makers and planners play the most essential role in creating regional inequality. According to the results of this research, some suggestions can be proposed: increase in the use of positive capacities and potentials and removing deficiencies; strengthening the defense and security infrastructure of the region in order to preserve and protect the country's territorial integrity; creating appropriate platforms and equal opportunities for creation of endogenous growth and development in order to achieve regional equilibrium; Maintaining the values and benefits of the region by using cultural, educational and economic capacities; assigning budget lines from government and nongovernmental credit resources to promote regional development indicators; emphasizing cultural-religious affiliations and strengthening the convergence, identity and national integrity to preserve the unity and social cohesion of the region; development of public and private investment in the regional industry sector in line with comparative and competitive advantages; organizing a settlement network between province centers, towns and villages of the region; special attention to development especially in the border regions of the region; determining the national and transnational role of the province to the sea-based economy; providing necessary facilities for the effective role of the country in the field of international transit; agricultural development in terms of water resource constraints in the region; fulfilling and implementing necessary measures for the prosperity of tourism in the region; effective and constructive interaction with neighboring countries and expansion of economic and international cooperation.