عنوان مقاله [English]
Urban spaces are shaping social relations and cultural heritage. Thus, urban spatial structure and formation in the presence of men and interactions of them is very impressive. To realize urban development to improve the economic situation, social and cultural life of society, it is required to have the formation and strengthening of civil security. Sense of security among the most important issues in any society is the precondition for any political system and social life. One of the most important aspects of security of a healthy society is peaceful and ideal social security of women. The presence of women in urban areas and especially in the Islamic urban spaces is highly important. According to the tenets of Islam, women in urban areas are of their inalienable right. Women living in cities are affected by actual or potential conditions of community. Islam attaches great importance to personal and social security. Safe urban spaces for people, especially women in Islamic society, is one of the basic necessities of urban planning, particularly urbanism in the Islamic Iran. This study is an analysis of urban spatial structure of old neighborhoods of Urmia (neighborhoods Mehdolghadam) to assess the characteristics of Islamic Iranian city and determine the desirability of the neighborhood structure of urban spaces in relation to the security needs of women. Thus, the purpose of this research is to develop detrimental effects of the presence of women in urban public areas and security of them in these areas. This is to recognize the concepts of security, the structure of urban spaces and public areas, social interactions and also to clarify the role and status of women in the fields of urban public. In this research, we scrutinized and evaluated the emphasis of Islam on women's participation in the society and the priorities and needs of Iranian Muslim women to participate in these areas in the old neighborhood.
This research is conducted by descriptive analytical methods and information is gathered by library and field syrvey. This research is to utilize popular participation of women between 15-65 years old in analyzing the structure of neighborhood spaces with the safety assessment approach in Mehdolghadam, as a neighborhood of Iranian–Islamic city, Urmia. The study area is divided into two parts. The evaluation was conducted based on the results of questionnaires. The questionnaires measured indicators and distributed at different times of day and night among women using the spaces. Finally, the raw data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed using GIS and SPSS software using One-sample T Test and Paired-sample T Test.
Results and discussion
Table 1. The names and description of factors
Urban space structures makes women feel safe or unsafe to live in space
The distinction between the fields of visual communications and height control and Panel transparent market makes navigation easy and the women's sense of safety.
Safe spaces in relationship women have with their community.
Access to urban facilities fairly and in a safe space for women.
In Islamic cities of the neighborhood is closed and the streets deadlock solution for secure and privacy.
Hierarchical system of urban spaces is the safety of women in urban areas
Including social control by citizens and neighbors
privacy and introspection
Mixed Use makes women in urban spaces interact and communicate.
hierarchy of spaces
According to the results of one-sample T test, there was a significant relationship between the security index and the women desirable urban space indices. This result was obtained from the measurement of the level of security and other related indicators in two parts of the neighborhood. Using this test, the average of the indices was compared in two parts of the neighborhood. In the end, the results of the research indicate that there is a significant relationship between the selected indicators and the security index in two parts of the neighborhood, up to 99 percent. In the segregated parts of the neighborhood, we are faced with different urban space structures. Thus, the difference in averages is justifiable in two parts. The comparison of the average of the indicators showed that the second part of the neighborhood is better than that of the first part of the neighborhood in terms of security and favorable urban environment for women. In first part, the level of security was low due to the inefficiency of the indicators and their low level of security, but in the second part of the neighborhood, the presence of more significant indicators and high levels of them resulted in higher security in that area.
In this study, we have investigated the relationship between structures of urban space and the sense of security of women in Islamic Iran. These results indicated that there is a significant negative correlation between security and urban spatial structures in Islamic Iranian city and the district had a rather different spatial structure mainly affected by the structural differences in the safety. Finally, security scale in the first part is more than that of the second part. It was also found that the security of women in the first district is less than the second; because it creates inefficiencies index and low levels of security. In this neighborhood, there are nospatial equity and equal access to facilities and municipal services between men and women so that men have a greater share in using municipal services.