عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the main issues of urban areas in Iran is that the right to a city as a collective right is confiscated in favor of private rights and profits of individuals. In other words, over the past decades, the value of use has been discarded in favor of exchange value. This approach is directly destroying the living areas of the residents. It is one of the most important manifestations of citizens' evacuation from urban areas with the loss of social function and use. The purpose of this study is to investigate the sense of belonging of gender groups with the impact of the right to the city in urban public places with an emphasis on the city of Urmia. To prove this hypothesis, I use the methods of belonging of men and women to urban public places during everyday life. In this regard, the relation between the right to the city and the concepts of belonging to the city are considered in their everyday experiences in the scale of everyday living places.
Since this research seeks to determine the relationship between the variable factors of the right to the city and the sense of belonging, it is practical in terms of purpose and collecting descriptive information. There are a lot of methods to investigate the relationships between variable factors. One of these methods is the structural equation model with multivariate analysis. Structural Equation Modeling is a comprehensive statistical approach for testing hypotheses about the relationships between observed and latent variables. Through this approach, we can test the acceptability of theoretical models in specific societies. In the analysis model of this research, the influence of the variable of the right to city is sense of belonging with significant factor loads.
Results and discussion
Among the internal latent variables, the highest influences on the of the right to the city are including the variables of component of citizenship right with a direct effect of 0.90, the right of social interaction with a direct effect of 0.74, the right of allocation of place with 0.67, the right of centrality with a direct effect of 0.52, and the right of participating with direct effect of 0.51. The most influential effect of sense of belonging structure is on urban belonging (0.67). There are numbers on each of the observed variables which shows the degree of explained variance by the latent variable. Maximum Structural Explanation of the right to the city is the variable of the right of allocating to urban places. Variable of city belonging is explained 45% by latent variable of sense of belonging. Standard model estimation is observed for two groups. The estimated impact of the sense of belonging to the city is 0.87 in the men's group and 0.80 in the group of women. Therefore, it is concluded that the group of men feels more belonging.
The findings showed that the estimated impact of sense of belonging to the city was 0.87 in men and 0.80 in women. This represents a greater sense of belonging in the male group. From these findings, we can conclude that the right to the city has been neglected among women. This refers to gender inequalities and the gendered nature of urban place, the domination of power relations and patriarchy is one of the main reasons. The right place is where all citizens consider it to be their own. We emphasized on three good fitness indicators from one hand and the experimental data on the other to test theoretical models of research. Therefore, suitable adaptation was provided between the models depicted or the structured model with experimental data and with emphasis on structural equations. A suitable model was developed for the relationship between independent and dependent variables. The optimal fit of the extracted models represents the structural equation modeling.