عنوان مقاله [English]
The present research was conducted with the aim of investigating the relationship between the variables of place attachment, environmental perception and their effect on environmentally friendly behaviors in the Aoun Ibn Ali entertainment and cultural complex of Tabriz. In this research, attachment to place is considered as an emotional element of human connection with nature and environmental perception as a cognitive element. In the literature review, it was determined that the variable of environmental behaviors in the dimensions of citizenship action, political support and recycling; Place attachment variable in the dimensions of place attachment, emotional attachment, place identity, social attachment; And the environmental perception variable can be measured in terms of being active, aesthetic, crime rate, interest, pleasantness, preference, comfort and safety. The current research is a field survey with 214 people, and the selection method is systematic random sampling, and the data collection tool is a questionnaire that is a combination of existing scales. The findings of the research showed that the respondents have an average perception of the environmental quality of the complex, but the state of their attachment to the place and their environmentally friendly behaviors were favorable. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the determined dimensions for all three variables are valid and therefore it can be said that these structures are a combination of the mentioned dimensions. Also, the results of the structural part of the structural equation modeling showed that there is a positive and significant correlation between the variables of environmental perception and attachment to the place, and both variables have a significant effect on the changes in the variable of environmentally friendly behaviors
Factors such as air pollution, noise pollution, loss of vegetation, and relocation of wildlife diminish the environmental quality of a place, reduce its attractiveness and competitive advantages over other places, and prevent its development. Intended or unintended negative behavior of tourists and visitors towards recreational areas can reduce the attractiveness and quality of these places.
The present study aimed to develop the empirical literature on the relationships between place attachment, environmental perception, and pro-environmental behavior and propose some strategies for strengthening pro-environmental behavior among visitors to natural areas. The research questions were: (1) How do visitors to the Oun-Ibn-Ali mountain complex perceive the environmental quality of this place? (2) How strong is the visitors' attachment to this place? (3) To what extent do visitors display pro-environmental behavior? (4) What is the relationship between visitors' environmental perceptions and their attachment to the Oun-Ibn-Ali mountain complex? (5) To what extent can visitors' attachment to this place predict their pro-environmental behavior? and (6) To what extent can visitors' environmental perceptions predict their pro-environmental behavior?
The present study was conducted based on field studies and surveys. The structural equation modeling approach (SEM) was used to test the hypotheses. Following the application of the systematic sampling method, 214 visitors to the Oun-Ibn-Ali tourism complex were selected to participate in the study. Data collection was based on the standard scales available in the literature. For this purpose, as a dependent variable, environmentally friendly behavior was studied using the scale proposed by Gkargkavouzi et al. (2019). This scale considered three subscales for civic action, policy support, and recycling to measure visitors' pro-environmental behavior. The four-dimensional scale developed by Ramkissoon et al. (2013) was also used to measure respondents' place attachment i including the dimensions of place dependence , affective attachment, place identity, and social bonds. For the environmental perception variable, the eight-dimensional scale developed by Ho &Ou (2020) was used, including the dimensions of activity, aesthetics, crime rate, interest, pleasantness, preference, relaxation, and safety.
Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data to show the distribution of the variables using SPSS 24 software. The measurement and structural models of the SEM approach were applied to perform confirmatory factor analysis and structural relationship analysis using AMOS 24 software.
Results and discussion
In all dimensions related to the environmental perception variable, respondents' scores were close to the mean of the spectrum, such that the overall mean score of environmental perception was 59.63 (compared to the maximum achievable score of 96), indicating that respondents had moderately positive perceptions of the environmental quality of this recreation complex. The overall mean score for participants' place attachment was 48.38, which is a reasonable level of place attachment compared to the maximum achievable score of 62. The mean score for pro-environmental behavior was 42.59 (compared to the maximum achievable score of 69) among visitors tothe Oun-Ibn-Ali complex, indicating a relatively good status of their environmental protection behavior.
Based on the standard regression coefficients, the four dimensions of place attachment play an important role in their measurement. The variable of environmental perception, as a second-order construct, consisted of the dimensions of activity, aesthetics, crime rate, interest, pleasantness, relaxation, preference, and safety. The variable of pro-environmental behavior, as a second-order construct, also included civic action, policy support, and recycling. The correlation rate of the place attachment and environmental perception variables was estimated to be 0.63, indicating a positive and relatively good relationship between the two variables. The effect of the environmental perception variable on pro-environmental behavior was 0.30, indicating a positive and significant effect. The effect of the place attachment variable on pro-environmental behavior was 0.16, indicating a positive and significant effect. The goodness of fit indices (GFI, AGFI, NFI, CFI) was mostly higher than 0.90, confirming the goodnessoffit of the proposed theoretical model to the experimental data.
The results show that pro-environmental behavior in natural and tourist areas depends on human actions, which can be studied at both emotional and perceptual levels. Regarding the perceptual dimension, people's cognitive evaluations of the environment (physical, functional, and social dimensions) and the positive perceptions conveyed to people by the different qualities of the environment significantly impact their perception. They improve people's interaction with the environment by creating a sense of commitment and responsibility to the place, which leads to positive actions to preserve the environment. In addition to the perception dimension, the emotional factors that arise under the influence of place attachment are also very crucial. These factors, referred to as place attachment, are influenced by the functional capacities of the environment, which are defined as the ability of an environment to meet human needs. In addition to functional capacities, emotional attachment between individuals and a place can lead to constructive interactions, creating a sense of loyalty and attachment to the place among visitors.
Based on the results, the following suggestions are made to reinforce pro-environmental behavior:
Improving the environmental quality of tourist areas through civic engagement can help visitors perceive these places positively;
Since civic action is one of the most important dimensions of pro-environmental behavior, activating environmental NGOs and persuading citizens to participate in these entities will have a critical impact on promoting pro-environmental behavior;
Creating effective mechanisms to facilitate citizen activists' communication with political and official organizations and facilitating their access to these organizations can be beneficial in sharing information and maximizing their engagement in pro-environmental activities;
Emphasizing local identity resources can go a long way toward creating a sense of pride and commitment to the future of the environment; and
Expanding local social connections and strengthening social capital and community ties can help create an affective attachment to place. This capacity, in turn, can be used to develop civic commitments and responsibilities to protect the natural environment.