عنوان مقاله [English]
A B S T R A C T
The inclusive city is a new approach in order to access affordable necessities such as housing and services and access to suitable jobs and opportunities (in order to create assets and wealth) as well as equal rights and participation of all members of the urban society and requires compliance with the three dimensions of space, social and It is economical. The purpose of this research is to investigate the factors affecting the inclusiveness of Tabriz city. The present research method is descriptive-analytical. The necessary information has been collected from the review of sources and Faradast documents and the questionnaire made by the researcher. In order to analyze the data, the technique of cross-effect analysis has been used in the Mic Mac software. The results of the research show that among the investigated factors, 9 factors of sustainable development, affordable housing, governance, economic reconstruction, employment, transportation planning, social justice, migration and distribution of opportunities were introduced as key factors. Also, economic, social and spatial inclusiveness were introduced as key drivers among the effective driving forces in the inclusiveness of Tabriz city.
An inclusive city is defined as a place where all members of society, regardless of economic status, gender, race, ethnicity or religion, can fully participate in the social, economic and political opportunities that provided by cities. In fact, the inclusive city creates a wide network to involvement the poor, unemployed and unpaid people in urban investment projects and programs to improve their lives. According to available statistics, 30% of the population of Iran is currently facing the challenges of declining quality of urban life, and the most important of these challenges are: the spread of urban poverty, expansion of spatial-functional inequalities, inefficiency of urban mobility, identity crisis, degradation and erosion Socially, the low resilience of cities in the face of disasters and environmental degradation. In the meantime, the city of Tabriz is facing a major challenge in terms of the three basic dimensions of the inclusive city (spatial, social and economic inclusion); Because access to affordable infrastructure, land and housing (spatial dimension), the right to the city and participation in the urban management process (social dimension) and equal access to equal opportunities has become a major issue for urban development managers. The present study seeks to find a suitable answer to the following question.
- What are the effective factors in the inclusion of Tabriz metropolis?
To identify the components and indicators of inclusive city, a pairwise comparison questionnaire was provided to 15 urban planning and management experts to identify the effective drivers in creating inclusive city and extract the key factors of inclusive development in Tabriz city. Structural analysis software (MICMAC) was used to analyze the research data. In this study, the effect of interrelated factors in the development of inclusive city has been studied and finally, the drivers of inclusive city development in city of Tabriz have been presented.
Results and discussion
Based on the studies, the key factors and drivers affecting the formation of an inclusive city in the metropolis of Tabriz are presented separately.
MicMac software also calculates the degree of matrix compatibility in both impact and effect modes. The higher the percentages, the greater the compatibility between the factors and the rationality of the relationship between the factors
After determining the factors by forming a matrix of interaction effects (researcher-made questionnaire by pairwise comparison with a range of 5, 0, 1, 2, 3, P) the extent of their impact and effectiveness on each other was determined by experts. Then, with the help of relevant software (MicMac), key factors are extracted. According to the numbers of the questionnaire, which is completed as a matrix, the software calculates their relationship and finally considers a numerical score for each factor. It ranks factors directly and indirectly based on impact and effectiveness. In this case, the factors that score the most points, their impact and effectiveness will change accordingly. Based on the definition and interpretation of variables in the MicMac diagram, the position and status of each factor in the future formation of the inclusive city in the metropolis of Tabriz was examined. The result is shown in the diagram below.
After determining the status of each of the factors, the relationships of these factors were examined in MicMac software that the relationships of key factors affecting the formation of an inclusive city in the metropolis of Tabriz are shown in five levels: ((Very weak to very strong relations, weak to very strong relations, relatively strong to very strong relations, strong to very strong relations, very strong relations)
The following diagram shows the degree of influence of each arrow to influence each other.
The variables that were selected as the key factors influencing the creation of an inclusive city are: (Sustainable Development, Affordable Housing, Governance, Economic Reconstruction, Employment, Transport Planning, Social Justice, Immigration, Opportunity Distribution)
Considering the concept of inclusive city and the objectives of the present article, an attempt was made to answer the research question, i.e., "Factors affecting the inclusion of the city of Tabriz." The results showed that among the studied variables, the variables of sustainable development, affordable housing, governance, economic reconstruction, employment, transportation planning, social justice, migration and distribution of opportunities were introduced as the most influential variables. They are also the most influential in the inclusion city of Tabriz. Also, among the effective driver’s forces in the inclusion of Tabriz city, economic, social and spatial inclusion were introduced as key drivers. The findings also showed that a small share in housing investment, political weakness and inability in the field of equal distribution of economic opportunities, inadequate employment structure in urban areas, lack of participation of people and stakeholders in the structure of urban management and lack of recognition of existing shortcomings in transportation and quotes; It has led to the lack of formation of the necessary bases for achieving a comprehensive city in Tabriz metropolis. The findings also showed that lack of housing investment, political weakness and inability in the field of equal distribution of economic opportunities, inadequate structure of employment in urban areas, lack of participation of people and stakeholders in the structure of urban management and lack of recognition of shortcomings in transportation; It has led to the lack of formation of the necessary bases for achieving an inclusive city in Tabriz.