عنوان مقاله [English]
The role of the sense of belonging in increasing environmental qualities in today's cities, which has been neglected and lack of active and effective participation of citizens, is very important. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effective factors in the citizens' sense of belonging to urban spaces and to determine the effective indicators in strengthening the sense of belonging to urban spaces and the degree of realization of these indicators in Bandar Bushehr Revolution Square. The type of research is based on the applied nature and based on the survey descriptive research method, and the location of the research is the Revolution Square (6th Bahman) in Bushehr Port, which is one of the oldest squares in Bushehr. The research community consists of two fixed groups (shopkeepers) and floating groups (passers-by), and the data collection tool in this research is a questionnaire whose reliability and validity have been scientifically measured. Then, using the exploratory factor analysis method, the indicators have been evaluated. The results of the research show that 20 spatial indicators affecting the factors affecting citizens' sense of belonging to urban spaces are divided into 6 factors: "memorability/local belonging", "accessibility and legibility", "visual beauty and spatial diversity", "providing activities", " inclusiveness" and "interactivity/presence" are categorized. Finally, solutions such as redesigning the furniture and atmosphere of El-Englab Square (6th of Bahman), allocating booths of native and local products on a seasonal basis in order to increase activities to attract as many people as possible, expanding local celebrations of the region and street performances, as well as using appropriate local and traditional elements It has been presented with the old texture of Bushehr, which can improve the sense of place and the identity of the place in the Revolution Square (6th Bahman).
From the beginning of creation, human beings have had a mutual relationship with their living environment, taking advantage of it to satisfy their needs. Urbanization has created a new type of human-environment interaction. An investigation of human behavior in the environment can help get a good grasp of such a relationship and especially the emotional attachment people have to the environment. If human needs are pinpointed and basic factors of citizenship culture and citizens' behavior in urban spaces are identified, their sense of belonging and attachment to the natural and artificial environment can be manifested straightforwardly. Global experience shows that public urban spaces can be an important means for identity formation and the development of human sustainability. An important and effective theme in improving the quality of the human environment is the sense of belonging to places, which is an important factor in shaping the communication between users and the environment and will ultimately contribute to the creation of quality environments. The value of the living environment for residents is not confined to functional and economic reasons. Part of this value seems to be wrapped up with the characteristics of the place in symbolic meanings, which in turn contribute to the identity of the place. Bushehr is one of the important commercial ports in Iran, which has inherited a special identity and culture from the past, with an outstanding commercial stance and special interactions with neighboring countries. The main squares of the city act as main access points for the residents. Therefore, in this study, in an attempt to identify urban spaces to assess the sense of belonging to urban spaces, factors affecting the citizens’ sense of belonging to Enghelab Square (6 Bahman) in Bushehr port were investigated.
The study is evaluative and applied in terms of purpose and nature, and is descriptive in terms of research method. The research study area was Enghelab Square in Bushehr. Library and field study methods were used simultaneously to collect the data required for this study. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire. Moreover, in the library method, the collected data related to the theoretical expressions were obtained from internal and external sources. In this study, qualitative components were used to study and explore the relationship of factors affecting identity. In the literature review, factors such as the sense of belonging, vitality, access, and social interactions were discussed. This study evaluated the factors effective in promoting the citizens’ sense of belonging to Enghelab Square of Bushehr. Different methods were used to determine the sample size. The research population included two groups. The fixed population of shopkeepers was 95 people and the floating population of passers-by was 80 people (average visitors to the square during busy day and night hours)/ the sample size was determined using Cochran's formula and simple random sampling. Of the total fixed and floating population (175 people), 140 individuals were selected as the sample size who completed 140 questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out in the form of tables and images and hypotheses were tested using factor analysis in SPSS software.
Results and Discussion
The total cumulative variance of the final extracted factors must be higher than 60. The third condition is that the explained variance of each factor alone must be higher than 10 so that the relevant factor is recognized as a factor affecting the sense of belonging. In urban studies, the third condition is not met. After determining the variance of each factor explaining the sense of belonging to urban spaces, the factor matrix was rotated so that each of the relevant indicators had the highest relationship with the relevant factors and the conditions for naming and identifying the relevant factors, which facilitate the score of each indicator of the factor. After creating the rotated matrix of factors and using the position of 20 indicators explaining the sense of belonging in urban spaces in the six factors, the factors should be interpreted and named. The naming is the same matrix whose factors were extracted by principal component analysis and rotated by the varimax rotation method, which is mentioned in the six factors. The first factor plays the most important role in explaining the sense of belonging to Enghelab Square in Bushehr. This factor is called "reminiscence / spatial belonging" with the variables "the effect of the square on the vitality and dynamism of the old texture, the effect of the sense of belonging to the field in recalling individual and collective memories, the memorization of the square for citizens and the degree of holding traditional and historical ceremonies" being the most relevant. The second factor called "accessibility and legibility" were highly related to the variables "accessibility of pedestrian and pedestrian paths to the square, the degree of human scale of the walls, the level of security (social), the degree of readability and the role of the field in becoming a symbol or sign of identity". The third factor called "visual beauty and spatial diversity" was most related to the variables "the proportion of the design of the square with the old texture of Bushehr, the degree of visual attractiveness in the design of the square and the effectiveness of the square in creating collective and interactive spaces." The fourth factor called "supply of activities" was mostly related to the variables "the rate of citizens' use of the space (daily, weekly, monthly), and the role of the space in shopping, entertainment, employment, etc.". The fifth factor called "inclusion" had the highest level of relationship with the variables "the presence of different population groups (children, middle-aged, disabled, etc.) in the space, and also the index of the presence of citizens during mourning". The sixth factor, called "interactivity / presence", was mostly related to the variable "the degree of diversity of activities (music, street performances, etc.) and people's participation in the space."
It should be noted that improving the quality of urban squares is a multidimensional endeavor and includes factors such as social, cultural, and physical aspects and economic vitality. Promoting the sense of belonging to urban squares is a solution that can increase most of their urban qualities because it has a direct impact on the presence of citizens and establishes social interactions that result in social and cultural vitality. The increased presence of citizens creates an environment of saving in terms of demand and has a significant impact on the economic quality of space. Finally, solutions have been proposed to promote the sense of belonging to urban spaces (especially Bushehr Enghelab Square).