نوع مقاله : پژوهشی - بنیادی
1 استاد جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، دانشگاه تهران، دانشکدۀ جغرافیا
2 دانشیار جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، دانشگاه تهران، دانشکدۀ جغرافیا
3 دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، دانشکدۀ جغرافیا
4 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، دانشگاه تهران، دانشکدۀ جغرافیا
عنوان مقاله [English]
Although the relation between urbanization and political culture is one of most challenging subject in the world, especially for developing countries (e.g. Iran), there are not enough researches on this issue. All the events, diverse economic, political, cultural, social and physical interactions and relations are concentrated on cities. However, cities as a modern phenomenon represent the status of governments and their functions in the development process of the relations; then cities are as political agent as they are social, geographical, cultural and economic phenomena. It means although formation of the cities and development of urbanization are mostly affected by political decisions, they influence political culture and national, regional, and even international politics. Some research findings indicate that urbanization is as a motivation to development in general, and over time it can lead to economic development, in especial. But there are fewer researches which show how it can develop political culture. Because of the importance of city and urbanization and their impacts on developing countries especially in Iran in one hand, and the shortage of research on the role of urbanization in political development on the other hand, it is necessary to explain the various theories about this issue. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to reveal the impacts of urban growth and urbanization on developing political culture. This article addresses the following question: Does the growth of city and urbanization lead to development of political culture in a social framework?
2. Materials and Methods
We have used mixed methodology to determine the criteria, factors and variables of urbanization and political culture, and also to measure the direct and indirect impacts of these as independent variables on development of political culture as a dependent variable. The mixed research method is a way to collect and analyze the quantity and quality of data in one or several survey. The purpose of this method is not the use of one instead of another; it aims to develop the strengths and decrease the weaknesses of both the two methods.
In general, this survey is separated into sections. In the first section, a conceptual framework is presented that may be utilized when analyzing the influences in political culture development arising from urbanization. Actually, factors affecting urbanization and development of political culture have been extracted by interviews with specialists.
In the second section, our proposed conceptual model has been analyzed relying on quantity research method and using coefficient and path analysis. Our samples are the citizens who live in Tehran and are more than 18 years old. Based on convenience sampling, 260 questionnaires have been given out and finally, 251 filled questionnaires were acceptable. To analyze the data and test our research hypothesizes, Pearson coefficient and multiple regressions have been utilized by using SPSS 13.
3. Results and Discussion
Extracted results from interviews with specialists indicate that two important factors affect political culture in a geographical space. The first factor is the function of government and state as planners and decision makers. The second is society members that according to their political knowledge, presence of different institutes in the society, having unbiased believes respect to race and tribe, their education level, and their motivation to civil participation, they have diverse requirements from their states. Beside these two factors, geographical place is an important factor that might affect political culture. Then, city and urbanization could be as a geographical place or space to reflect the beginning of political culture development. Quantity findings have been separated into two parts. First of all, inner coefficient of urbanization and political culture indicators and then path analysis have been used to estimate the direct and indirect impacts of urbanization variables on political culture development. In the first part, we have used the Spearman coefficient to measure the correlation coefficients of urbanization variables with each other in one hand and correlation coefficients of political culture development variables on the other. Spearman coefficient results show a direct relation with high significance. Virtual and public spaces variable and then the variable of weakening racial, sexual, and tribal believes have the largest significant relation with other variables. From all the variables for political culture development concept, freedoms of speech and political knowledge have much more significant than other variables. The results of path analysis present that urbanization process is an essential factor to develop political culture in particular and political development in general. Moreover, political participation, political knowledge, freedom of speech and democracy, institution and weakening the racial - tribal and sexual believes have direct and indirect impacts on the dependent variable. Furthermore, the variables of social mobilization and forming virtual/public spaces have indirect impacts on developing political culture. In analysis of our findings, two variables of institution and forming virtual and public spaces with 1.15 and 0.71 rates, have the most influences on development of political culture.
We are concluded that urbanization in Iran, especially in two recent decades, have direct and indirect impacts on political development and especially political culture development and it is as a beginning to political development in a social structure. However, it has been affected by different national and international changes. Our model results indicate that urbanization indicators significantly influence political culture development indicators. Furthermore, Spearman coefficient test shows that there is a significant correlation between urbanization and developing political culture. It means if the rate of urbanization increases, the political culture will be developed and subsequently changes in quality of life, a shift from urbanization towards urbanism, and responsive citizens will be expected. It should also be noted that according to three pointed theories related to urbanization in this paper, our findings make it clear that in Iran urbanization and its impacts on political development, in general, and development of political culture, in particular, follow Milbert Doutch and Lerner theory that acclaims urbanization has a significant impact on political behavior.