ارزیابی تحقق‌پذیری مؤلفه‌های توسعۀ فضایی- کالبدی طرح جامع شهر بیجار

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی - کاربردی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران

3 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران

چکیده

هدف اصلی این پژوهش ارزیابی میزان تحقق‌پذیری طرح جامع شهر بیجار در مؤلفه‌های توسعۀ فضایی- کالبدی به‌ویژه جمعیت، اشتغال، کاربری زمین و چگونگی و جهت گسترش شهر است. روش پژوهش توصیفی- تحلیلی و مقایسه‌ای است. برای جمع‌آوری داده‌ها از روش‌های اسنادی و میدانی و برای پردازش داده‌ها و اطلاعات از مدل‌های AHP و مدل ELECTRE و نرم‌افزار Expert Choice بهره‌گیری شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که میزان تحقق‌پذیری طرح جامع در مؤلفۀ جمعیت 17/46 درصد، در مؤلفۀ اشتغال 60/58 درصد و در مؤلفۀ مساحت پیشنهادی شهر 44 درصد بوده است. دربارۀ جهت گسترش شهر، پیش‌بینی طرح جامع در کوتاه‌مدت هم‌گام با طرح بوده است، اما به دلیل تکمیل ظرفیت محدودۀ پیشنهادی، گسترش شهر بر خلاف جهت پیشنهادی طرح جامع که در سمت شمال شرقی بوده، در جهت شمال غرب و روی زمین‌های کشاورزی گسترش یافته است. از مهم‌ترین دلایل محقق نشدن پیش‌بینی‌های طرح می‌توان به پیش‌بینی‌های غیرکارشناسانه در زمینۀ تحولات جمعیتی و اقتصادی در درازمدت، ضعف در هماهنگی و مشارکت مؤثر مردم و نخبگان محلی و ضعف در بهره‌گیری از الگوهای مطلوب و مناسب رشد و توسعۀ شهری و عدم انسجام مطالعات جغرافیایی به‌ویژه اجتماعی- اقتصادی با الگوی پیشنهادی توسعۀ کالبدی- فضایی شهر اشاره کرد. بنابراین می‌توان گفت مشارکت نکردن نخبگان و جمعیت بومی در فرایند تهیه و تدوین و نظارت مستمر و ضعف در انعطاف‌پذیری طرح از دلایل عدم موفقیت طرح جامع شهر بیجار بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment the implementation of spatial-physical components of the comprehensive plan of the Bijar city

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Shamai 1
  • Mahdi Abdollahi 2
  • Sadegh Hajinejad 3
1 Associate Professor, Department of Geography, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
2 MA., Geography & Urban Planning, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
3 MA., Geography & Urban Planning, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

1. Introduction
The late nineteenth century,coincided with the growth and urban development, urban problems such as inharmonious distribution of land uses in districts and, urban neighborhoods, inadequate housing, urban traffic problems, environmental degradation, Fall quality of life, the crisis of social and economic, economic and social crises, a variety of ideas and approaches in the field of urban development among urban planners in Europe and America the resultant it was introduced in the growth and development of urban planning and the urban plans.The time produce the first comprehensive plan   for Iranian cities returns in the mid- 1340s. Although comprehensive plan  s with technical preparations have been prepared and also a lot of spending and the positive impact on land zoning, building regulations compliance and relative improvement of life in cities but they have been unable to all of the for various reasons, reach.
Undoubtedly, understanding and awareness regarding from the accomplishment of the goals, expectations and recommendations of the comprehensive plan   requires a comprehensive study of urban plans in different parts of the country.
As can be such that from the very beginning since comprehensive plan preparation approaches _ review during implementation by enforcement and experts, has been an imitation of the West and ignore local requirements analysis and the plan as well as the lack of assessment of the results of preparing plan to avoid past mistakes of other factors that affect the inefficiency of the comprehensive plan.
Bijar is one of the oldest cities in the province of Kurdistan, Bijar first comprehensive plan   following the Islamic Revolution of Iran in 1371prepared and has been approved, the plan despite the passage of 21years since the preparing, still most proposals urban spatial development the plan have not been fulfilled.
Accordingly, this study aims to assess the implementation of the comprehensive plan   the year 1371 and identify factors that influence the non-realization of the plan proposals, in order to prevent repetition of past mistakes in the preparation of the future urban development and also up to date and relevant to current recommendations of the comprehensive plan (Comprehensive Plan 1388) has been done.
 
2. Materials and Methods
The research method is descriptive - analytical and comparative. Data collection   through the documents and field methods.and using the Expert Choice software and Electre models, alternative ways physical development of the Bijar city has been evaluated.
In this research, based on the existing data, the population reached Bijar forecast horizons is evaluated. The proposal for implementing user-level and per capita with the existing data, proportions, shortages and excessive land use and spatial analysis is studied in the city of Bijar.
In this after Adjustment comparison of the various options and weighting options based on the opinions  local experts in Bijar and using the software Expert Choice, the proposed options for future development Bijar using electric models and prioritize the physical development Bijar option was specified.
Results and discussion
Bijar is one of the in Kurdistan province cities. Population over 55 years, with a growth of 3.07 percent in 1390, its population had risen to 47,926 people. Of 5 in-year periods 1390-1385, the average annual growth rate of Bijar is approximately .20 Percentages, that growth is very low.
The gross population density of Bijar 35.87 people per hectare and the net residential density in the city is equal to 160.82 ha and the low density of the component cities of the country.Comprehensive plan the employment forecast of about 80.14 percent achieved in 1375, but in 1385 only 58.60% of these predictions have been fulfilled.
Neglect and lack of sufficient knowledge of relevant economic indicators and studies by non-specialists (specialists in fields other than economists), the economic consequences city, caused the bond between the spatial development of has Bijar is.Increase in the level of per capita land use, cultural, the reception and tourism, sports, office, transport and green space and also reduce the level of per capita industrial land uses - workshop, military, warehouses, should be considered in future plans city ​​planners and city managers to be.About aspects of physical development, physical development Bijar directions southeast and northwest of the city in the short term and the long term development of the city in northeastern suggested,  However mainly development in the northwest of the city within the agricultural land,
To assess the physical-spatial development alternative _ Bijar, which includes the first alternative of the inner or interstitial, second alternative development in northeast, the third alternative is northwest of the city, fourth alternative is the southern, Electre model used. In this method, instead of ranking _ of the new concept known as "non-ratings' are used. In this method all of _ alternative using non-ratings comparisons been assessed by means of non-effective _ are removed (Hekmatnia and _ Mousavi, 1390: 370(
To comparison facilities and limitations of physical-spatial development Bijar, each of the nine indicators were identified in addition to field studiesthe authors, of the local experts in Bijar were contributions.
The results of the analysis Electre model revealed that the best alternative at present of the spatial development of the of Bijar, that is attention to inner development, it can be the current development of physical- spatial characteristics Bijar be consistent.
 
Conclusion
After a 50 years, urban comprehensive plan in Iran spite of the replacement of structural plan the origin of its, as well as its position in the urban planning system, except in large cities like Tehran and Mashhad preservation have. In this study, the rate of and reasons for the success or failure of the plan implementation will be investigated.
-About the reasons for the failure of the comprehensive plan of the Bijar, the following can be stated:
-Impossibility of correctly predictions the long-term demographic and economic trends;
-Ignoring the will of the people and its role in the formation of the the urban;
-Lack of attention to economic sector comprehensive plan and the status of economic studies in Physical- spatial development ;
-Much emphasis on physical planning, regardless of social and economic planning;
- Changing demographics in terms of macroeconomic policies, which sometimes leads to higher population growth on urban development and urban development times greater than the growth of population must be different. the create a balance between these two factors; the country has not accepted any time.
- Lack of national and regional spatial planning;
- Lack or denial of access to essential data and update the plan;
- Lack of flexibility in plan;
- Little attention to the role of agriculture in the future development of the city;
- less attention to the inner city wasteland that has provided for the possibility of inner development and the need for horizontal expansion of the city is destroyed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • assessment
  • comprehensive plan of Bijar
  • spatial -physical development
  • population
  • Land Use
  • employment