عنوان مقاله [English]
Urban environments, features and physical characteristics, and various symbolic forms can be used in many behavioral characteristics such as attitudes, tastes, habits and the way of insight of influence and many behaviors and norms. These are formed in the the community. In fact, the urban environment as a place where citizens are in touch every day, can be appropriate and have optimal opportunities for learning and exchange of learning and experiences of citizens. This can improve teaching and learning. Hence, the city gives education not only by means of formal and informal educational and cultural institutions, but also through urban planning, environmental planning, urban communication tools, local industry, public and private companies, and the social fabric.
Today, urban environments for social learning and citizenship education as the cultural goals of society are considered by urban planners and managers as a key issue. Given that learning is a social issue, you can use the physical and semantic factors in urban environments as a platform for teachers and education of the citizens. In order to improve the local urban environment for training and learning of citizenship, we have investigated the factors, criteria and indicators of education, environment and citizenship education based on the opinions of experts in the field reconnaissance. The factors associated with urban spaces of Hamadan for social teaching spaces are examined from three perspectives, by citizens, urban planners and education experts. In order to achieve the aims of the research, we used cross-practices review and document image in the context of a literature review and case study methods and practices observed in the context of field studies and research questionnaire. Due to the nature of this study, we tried to answer two issues: (1) assessment of the factors and components of the urban environment with a focus on citizenship education instructor, (2) The correlation effect and learning components of the urban environment and citizenship education for learning from the perspective of citizens, urban planners and experts in education.
This is a descriptive and surve research with analytical and structural equation model based on solidarity. Data have been collected by sample questionnaire. The data have been analaysed by using SPSS and Lisrel software to examine research questions. In this study, to investigate the research data, we have the help of four experts in urban planning, space users (citizens), education experts, and direct observation. To choose a listed population groups, we used different range of lightweight multi-stage cluster sampling. The number of respondents were based on a sample of 327 people, including 131 resident of Hamedan, 107 specialist in urban planning and 89 sociology of education.
Results and Discussion
According to the model, there are 3 components and 18 indicators to measure the rate of urban spaces that should study Hamadan teacher features. On the other hand, according to research aims to calculate the factor loadings in urban areas of Hamadan, Hamadan indicators and criteria are evaluated to determine the effects achieved in the city. In this regard, a questionnaire with questions on the impact of the urban environment recalls the characteristics and values of citizenship education in a Likert scale of 1 to 5 (code that denotes very low to very high). With regard to the conceptual model in relation to the civil standard the questionnaire asked from citizens, experts and specialists in urban education about an opinion 6 indices in structural criteria, physical 6 indices and functional criteria, functional 6 indices by questionnaire. The supplemental questionnaire data through structural equation modeling were analyzed to determine the factor loadings and correlation criteria evaluated by software and Lisrel SPSS.
Based on the findings, components learning environments with a focus on citizenship education can be seen in three dimensions of attitude-civil factor, physical structural factors, functional factor and presented 18 indicators. The principles along with the criteria derived from the analysis of theories of different scholars on the urban environment training and citizenship education is as a conceptual model for evaluation of the impact of the urban environment. Among the measures proposed in the research, indices related to the environment, walkability, healthy functions and activities from the perspective of citizens' sense of environmental indicators, educational and color multi-functional spaces belong to the opinions of experts in urban planning. Indicators of questions and curiosity in the environment, workshops and educational forums opinion the most obvious time to learn in the urban areas of Hamadan. The factors stated in the research attitude are the physical with load intensity (0.55) in the opinions of citizens, structural factors as a function of the load intensity (1.19) in the opinions of urban planning experts and attitude as a function of the load intensity (1.39) from the opinions of education professionals. These have the highest correlation coefficient between the other components of the urban spaces in Hamadan. Based on the analysis of the results, insight for different social groups to learn urban space is obvious. Citizens can be instructor on the basis of experience and insight of daily life in urban environments based on the needs and desires and in accordance with the facts about the opportunities and limitations of urban environments . The opinions of experts in urban planning and education is to determine the amount of times more indicators are based on their skills and specialized training. The experts are dealing with the issue of a scientific and systematic mode.