عنوان مقاله [English]
Lack of access to safe and secure housing is one of the main features of urban poverty. Housing is the most important productive asset guaranteeing the credit for livelihood. The price of land has a significant impact on housing supply. The circumstances that led to development of illegal or informal land markets are quantity and quality and availability of the housing guarantee. Housing poverty in urban areas is randomly scattered, primarily in the form of informal settlements. This is one of the most important symbols in the awareness of living in these areas, according to the indicators of housing quality. Informal settlements, including cars and houses without legal identity, are unevenly scattered around cities. Informal settlements are prominent factor in urbanization and housing for the urban poor. Furthermore, housing quality of a resident of informal settlements depends on many factors. One of the factor is the individual condition. This means that each of the residents of the informal settlements can be effective in improving the quality of their housing. The capital that can contain individual residents of informal settlements is a psychological capital. The psychological capital is of great importance in informal settlements. The aim of this paper is to identify the relationship between housing quality and psychological capital in neighborhood Yusufabad of Tabriz.
This study in terms of the purpose is application -development and in terms of the nature and method is correlation. The population in this study is all patients over 18 years in neighborhood Yusufabad of Tabriz City. We have used simple random sampling method. The sample size of this study, which is calculated based on Cochran formula, is 322 people. The use of primary data is collected using a questionnaire. The validity of the formal system and its reliability is obtained by calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The alpha obtained for 30 preliminary questionnaires, in each of the above range, is 0.7 and shows high internal consistency of the items. To examine the relationship between housing quality and Pearson test, we used psychological capital and to measure the impact of housing quality indicators of psychological capital component of the analysis using structural equation models, we used fitting indices (AMOS).
Results and Discussion
The results indicate that 40% of those people are aged 18 to 28 years old, 14.4 percent are in the age group of 29 to 39 years old, 30.8% of those aged 40 to 50 years old, and only 14.8% of them have over 50 years old. About 38.4 percent of the respondents of the reaserch are men and 61.6% of the respondents are women. About 20 percent of the respondents were illiterate, 28% of the respondents have education in diploma and 21% have a college education and only 7 percent of the respondents had a MA graduate. About 43.8% of the respondents were employed and 56.2% were unemployed. To examine the relationship between housing quality and psychological capital, we used pearson test. This test shows that two-tailed significance level for efficacy variable is less than 0.05. Therefore, there is a significant relationship between housing quality and self-efficacy, Pearson correlation coefficient for efficacy variable is equal to 0.336. Pearson correlation coefficients for the variables of optimism are 0.511.
Psychological capital is one of the new research topics of interest for human resources. Psychological capital, including human capital and social capital, is considered as the intangible assets of an organization unlike tangible assets with lower costs of management and leadership. This can not lead to results and revenue considerably. The psychological capital consists of measurable psychological variables . In this research, we studied the relationship between housing quality indicators in relation to the psychological capital variables. To examine the relationship between housing quality and pearson test, we used psychological capital for each variable of interval type. In this test, independent variables are housing quality and the dependent variable is components of psychological capital. To examine the relationship between housing quality and psychological capital, we used pearson test. This test shows that two-tailed significance level for efficacy variable is less than 0.05. Therefore, there is a significant relationship between housing quality and self-efficacy, pearson correlation coefficient for efficacy variable is equal to 0.336. Pearson correlation coefficients for the variables of optimism are 0.511. The housing quality index is positively correlated with the factors related to psychological capital. This means an increase in housing quality parameters make increases in the variables related to psychological capital index. To measure the impact of housing quality on psychological capital, we alsoused AMOS model. The greatest amount of variance component model of psychological capital of the Self-Efficacy is equal to 78%. The maximum variance for housing quality index for social indicators is 42 persent. In general, it can be concluded that the model (observed variables) are a good fit and it means that the observed variables can be well hidden variables to measure.