نوع مقاله : پژوهشی - کاربردی
1 استادیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان
2 استادیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند
3 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان
عنوان مقاله [English]
Todays, the population living in urban areas is higher than all periods of human history. The global urban population is expected to grow double by 2025. Populatioin of the world was doubled and will reach more than 5 billion people. More than 90% of this growth will be in the developing countries. However, the cities as engines of social growth and development have incredible potential. Thus, urban management will be faced with challenge in the future and in the twenty one century particularly; a challenge is derived from technological, economical, political and international change. Today, it has been accepted that stable development is realized through democracy goals, equality in providing services and conservation of environment accompanied with formation of urban management and observance of the principles of urbanization science, urban transportation and unequal division of resources and urban income. Global society understood that the main problem of urban management is not the shortage of financial resource or modern technology or skills but it is in the ways by which the authorities manage these factors. The experience of centralized countries showed that one-side and subject view to city creates many problems and the only way to solve the problems is public supervision (account ability) and cooperative act and promotion of efficacy level of urban functions. Principally, urban governance is regarded as an approach of decision-making system and management of urban affairs and in fact it is a process that shapes the interaction between organization and formal institutions on one hand and private organization and institutions of civil society on the other hand.
Since the late nineteenth centary, the “good governance” was initiated as an answer to the civil corruption to support employers and political organizations. National movements with intelligence of governance and civil morals was supported as an antitoxin for urban area living. The simple definition of urban governance is the quality of relationship between the government and its citizens. Researchers and scientific centers considered special particulars for good governance. But the most important of these particulars are those that United Nation has introduced. They are explained below, in detail:
Participation. A process that people taking part, with awareness, voluntarily and cumulatively.
Effectiveness and Efficiency. Good governance means that lawgiver organizations always take of people needs and use available sources efficiently.
Responsibility. In good governance, responsibility means that to empower people to become auditors and having the rights of expressing their opinions. Thus, responsibility comes against anti-responsibility. This responsibility might show corruption in decisions, while responsibility is an obstacle in front of its appearing.
Rule of law. Aim of Rule of Law in urban decisions is to have an efficient law, observe it gustily in decisions.
Accountability. It means responsible people, managers and the organization responsible for their desertions.
Responsiveness. this criterion has two supplementary points. Urban responsiveness has to accept the citizen needs and also react against it perfectly.
Orientation connsensus. urban area is an open space for groups and various interests that sometimes quarrel with each other. The aim of Orientation Connsensus is to make an agreement about the various interests.
Equity. in good governance equity containing: making suitable chances for all people to improve their convenience state, straggle for allocation sources and having partnership of all people even poor ones in decisions.
Strategic vision. abstain of being drowned in the daily urban problem needs to have vast insight about the future or having aStrategic Vision about the urban development.
Fig. 1. Conceptual model of this study
The purpose of the present research is to measure the indices of good governance and shows the facilitative role of citizens to achive this goal. The methodology is descriptive- analytical. The dominant approach on research is systematic. According to system view, it has represented the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the SOWT model. In the stage of documentary studies, the internal and external sources have been studied and at field phase, 385 questionnaires have been completed by citizens and 32 questionnaires by experts and specialists of municipality and the city council. The statistical population of this research is all citizens in Birjand city, i.e., 178020 people based on 2010 census. The volume of this model with due attention to the Cochran formula is equal to 385 individuals. The model distribution was sampled with the way of sampling proportional to (pps) volume (table nu. 1). In this way of sampling, the number of sample in each branch has to be proportional to the member of that branch. Hence, the number of sample in all Birjand urban area was distributed proportional to the population of each district. The number of 32 people of urban experts and the city council has also been selected and their opinion about this research has been used.
In this project, we have used SPSS software to analyze the information and statistical variables, Excel software to make the graphs and ArcGIS software to prepare the maps and plans.
Table 1. Method of sample distribution
Number of samples
Results and Discussion
With due attention to the results of civil factors, evaluation table and external factors of the evaluation table, civil factors was equal to 2.06 and it is lower than 2.5. The final point of external factors was equal 1.84 and it is lower than 2.5 that show inappropriate react of urban management to chances and threats. After achieving the matrix from internal and external factors matrix, foreign internal matrix was drawn. The final scores of matrices (IFE) and (EFE) are used to determine the position of governance. According to this rule, Birjand matrix is in defensive position. This means that from one side the city is faced with internal weaknesses and external threats on the other hand, we must reduce weaknesses and avoid threats.
Internal and external matrix (IE) also shows that Birjand city is located in a defensive location. Birjand city is faced with weaknesses and some major threats. With the results of QSPM, the priorities of defensive strategies (WT) are state that it is essential to:
Pay special attention to the management of urban area and reduce the dominance approach.
Elevate the position of the city council to increase citizen’s participation.
Pay special attention to the environmental assumes in long term planning especially the water problem due to prolonged droughts.
Prevent the urban spiral growth and establish strict rules in order to prevent the conversion of agricultural land to residential areas using abandoned and unused lands in the city.
Pay attention to the rule of low and hold training courses to raise the awareness state of employees and experts.
Therefore, it can be concluded that Birjand city in the event of good governance in terms of internal factors is weak and did not respond to external factors. Thus, we can judge that Birjand city in the event of good governance do not have good position.