عنوان مقاله [English]
Theoretical basis of citizenship oriented space definition is consisted of evolution of the space concept in the last decade. It creates a common understanding that space is a social construction and also is a community structure. This takes into account the social rights of citizens as a basis for planning. Citizenship oriented space can be created anytime that urban space is organized in a way that it can meet the needs of citizens. This included physical and functional goals and qualitative and psychological needs of citizen in urban life such as social identity, social security and welfare, sustainable employment, psychological comfort, sense of beauty, solidarity and social belonging. The space can create readability and respond to human needs in space and effort to increase the happiness of the people. Precise comprehension of the citizenship oriented space is required to identify its dimensions and components. The latest and most complete approach in this regard is the Citizen Satisfaction Index (CSI). This model is based on four main axes which include urbanity and diversity, nature and recreation, job opportunities, cost-efficiency and overall satisfaction and attachment as two complementary axes. The main objective of this research is to study Tehran space in terms of citizenship. The following questions are Tehran space within the framework of concept, scope and definitions of citizenship oriented space. To respond to this issue, it is required to review theoretical concepts and principles of the citizenship oriented space, identify its dimensions and indicators, and finally analyze Tehran situation.
Research Methodology in this paper is analytical. The study area is Tehran. This city is involved in the most recent urban projects and planning. What now is appeared in the urban space is reflecting the existing planning system. The status of this space from the rights of citizens and their degree of satisfaction from this space created effective recognition in existing problem. This can be a guide for other cities in recognition of their urban planning in the future. Mixed or cluster sampling was used because of complex and diverse structure in Tehran with different levels of prosperity and economic, social and cultural rights. Therefore, based on research that had been divided the city of Tehran according to spatial equity and level of development, we have selected three-zones including district 1 (high development), district 22 (intermediate level of development) and district 18 (the low level of development).
Data collection method is documentary and field survey based on questionnaires. The study population included all citizens in Tehran. Using Cochran formula, the sample size was 384 people. To determine the variables and measure the components of Tehran space, we used CSI model. However, little changes have given in the CSI model due to Tehran city conditions, limitations in assessing some components, and lack of issues in this version. Added indicators are access to public transport, motion flow and movement in the city, and feeling safe in the city. Statistical methods used are cronbach's alpha, chi-square, one sample T-test, and spearman correlation coefficient.
Results and Discussion
Visual image of the city, environmental quality, parks and open spaces, motion flow and movement in the city, feeling safe in the city, the price of rental housing and cost of living are the indicators that demonstrate dissatisfaction of citizens. Wide range of cultural activities, a variety of shopping opportunities, energy and atmosphere of the city, access to utilities, the sense of security in public spaces, how to accept and absorb the cultures and subcultures, natural green space and public access to public transport indicators demonstrate relative satisfaction of citizens and relative desirability. The indicators of general level of wages and employment opportunities show satisfaction of citizen and ideal situation. Finally, main axis of CSI model and overall satisfaction index demonstrate lack of citizen satisfaction in Tehran space.
The concept of space, its dimensions and spatial planning are challenging issues of urban planning. Space is not limited to physical aspects. Citizenship oriented space is multi-faceted concept and covers all economic, social, cultural, environmental aspects of life and the rights of citizens. CSI is one of the most comprehensive models to measure citizenship oriented space. Assessment of this model in Tehran city demonstrated that Tehran space is not in the context of citizenship oriented space and dissatisfaction of citizens is undesirable. Higher satisfaction of citizens in both the general level of wages and employment opportunities are the result of the basic problem of the national planning system. This is resulted from concentration of all economic activities in Tehran, needs of citizens to live in this city, and access to jobs. This problem requires urban planning reform with considering citizenship rights to observe the balance between population, activities and space and balance between national, regional, municipal and local planning. The results showed that the balance between population, space and activities have not been met in Tehran. Unsuitable organization of the national space have had a direct effect on Tehran metropolitan situation and caused dissatisfaction of citizens in other fields. Among other factors affecting the noncompliance in Tehran with the citizenship oriented space indicators are the lack of citizen participation in urban planning process, extrovert urban system, urban management accountability to upper authorities, and political context effectiveness on urban management values. Undoubtedly improvement of this situation in Tehran with the huge population cannot be done in a short time and through massive intervention in the physical space of the city. Basis of creating citizenship oriented space is to target satisfaction of citizens in all planning. This would requires changing urban planning approach to bottom-up planning and citizen participation in the policymaking, decision-making, implementation and monitoring. Hence, it is essential to make coordination in civil law, politics, government, foundations and rules of urban management to consider necessity of social management and crisis.