عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the main consequences of rapid urbanization growth and physical development in Iran in the recent decades has been disintegrating distribution system underlying inequality in citizen service centers. With the lack of financial, technical and social infrastructures for public use, the city has also fueled the homogeneity and spatial inequalities.
Polarization of urban spatial structure due to management policies and rate environment to attract or repel undesirable qualities has increased facilities and services. Today, the issue of social justice is at the heart of urban studies in all related disciplines. Social justice in cities and eventually in satisfaction of your lifestyle will contribute to political stability and national sovereignty. The social justice is a fair distribution of resources between urban areas and equal access of residents to their facilities. Because they lead to social unrest, lack of equitable distribution of space can lead to complex problems. That is why in the past two decades, we saw a lot of development studies related to social justice. Today, in relation to solving urban problems and difficulties arising from this relationship, the authorities have emphasized on the distribution of public services, social justice and the welfare of citizens. Spatial balance and preparations for Sustainable Urban Development provides distribution services in the city centers. Regional and local causes of irregularity are among the distribution of distant areas of social justice. Therefore, eliminating poverty and reducing inequalities are economic, social and cultural development goals and social justice. Therefore, the problems of metropolises and big cities, especially in the third world, are a reflection of poverty, misery, injustice and unemployment in the cities. It is necessary to analyze problems and structural problems of the cities with the theory of social justice to solve problems at the national level.
As a highly populated city, Ahvaz in Khuzestan province has experienced unbridled growth in the last years due to natural growth , immigration, expansion of services, and changes in social, economic and demographic trends. The population of this city has increased from 120,089 people in 1956 to 1,064,177 people in 2010. The population of Ahvaz has increased more than 8 times. This change occurred just in 55 years and has come covered as areas from 2,500 hectares to 22,000 hectares. During this period, the urban lands covered about 78 percent of the previous urban area. Therefore, the city has faced with the problem of injustice in the distribution of utilities in recent decades due to population variability. Paying attention to the situation in Ahvaz metropolitan urban areas can change municipal services from the perspective of spatial equity index and identify the weaknesses and strengths of urban planning and policy in the future development.
This study is an applied research with a combination of analytical methods. In this study, we have used two methods to collect data by library and field survey. The civil service has been used to determine the parameters of the Delphi survey. Hence, a questionnaire has been prepared and distributed among 15 experts in urban issues. The weighted data have been used to model hierarchical fuzzy and data from electronic techniques. To measure social justice we have used enjoyment of civil service per capita. The measures are including business - services, education and research training, cultural - artistic, religious, health - health, sports, office, parks and green spaces, urban facilities, municipal facilities, housing, roads, transportation and industrial.
Results and Discussion
The main objective of this study is spatial analysis metropolitan areas of Ahvaz. The data is also derived from electronic engineering (ELECTRE). The final results obtained from electric model show that the region is quite high in categories 3 and 4, in the category of Region 2, Region 1, 6, 7 and 8. The results of this study indicated spatial justice in the metropolitan areas of Ahvaz.
We have also argued about the identification of the factors affecting the spatial inequality in Ahvaz.
Influence Power viewpoint focuses on national and regional sovereignty. The influence of the less developed areas of the national and regional scale will continue in less developed areas.
Given the results of these authorities and relevant institutions, Ahvaz metropolis can offer strategies such as more attention to underserved areas of Ahvaz and prioritizing the areas of social development, cost allocation to regions, and allocation of additional costs in deprived areas.