عنوان مقاله [English]
Nowadays with increasing growth of urbanization, urban problems are entangled in the cities more than any other time. These difficulties have affected all aspects of urbanization and decrease in total quality of urbanization. Old urban textures are one of the urban difficulties with three main indices, 1) Granulites 2) Impermeable 3) Instability. Renewal and improvement of these old textures are considered by many programmers and urban managers in recent decades. Inconsistent and often contradicting policies are one the obligations of regeneration and refinement of urban distressed areas. In recent decades, various policies on environment quality ascension, social status, and cities vitality, especially their inner areas, have been proposed. Many projects have also been conducted about these issues. Comprehensive policy making and planning with regard to refinement and regeneration of the urban old textures are purposeful and deliberate attempts to achieve a consistent and integrated urban management. The purpose of this study is to investigate the refinement policies of Karaj town, prioritizing these policies and identification of their most significant policies. These are effective and impressible on regeneration and refinement of the old texture of Karaj town.
Karaj, like a young metropolis which less than 50 years have passed from its new life (as a complementary core in the urban complex of Tehran), is faced with an issue of old urban texture in 785 hectare of urban region. Therefore, immunization of problematic textures of this town is inevitable in various issues of social, environmental and physical aspects.
This study is a descriptive-explanatory research. The purpose of this study is to investigate the current condition, systematically describe this current condition, and investigate the relations among different variables. This research is conducted in a way that its results can be utilized in decision makings, policies and planning. The research method used here is a secondary-field study (observation, questionnaire) technique, considering the subject, objectives and research questions. The data of this research have been collected through two questionnaires and they have also been analyzed and concluded using Micmac (policies prioritizing) and Superdecisions (detection of effective and impressible policies) software. We have applied the Micmac software for structural analysis and Superdecisions software for statistical analysis. Through Superdecisions, best options can be detected and patterns can be created in complex environments. It has also the capability of solving the multiple factors decision making problem. The Micmac software provides this capability by receiving help from the matrix connection, all min factors of a system can be explained. Through investigation of this connection, the related method of the detection of main variables is provided to assess the system. For distribution of questionnaires, the snow ball sampling technique has been used as a certified survey method. Different sources for this research are books, thesis, articles, master plans, detailed plans of Karaj city from 2010 till now, websites and etc.
Results and discussion
Research results indicate that from 11 selected policies in this part and considering the 4 measures of cost, operation duration, operation capability, and the amount of effectiveness, the ANP model have been designed using Superdecisions software. Then, by forming matrixes, pairwise comparison has been made among clusters and measures. After finishing the pairwise comparison, the Inconsistency Rate (IR) has been calculated as 0.1, which is acceptable. Final results of priorities superiority in 11 classes in nominal and graphical form indicate that some parameters including “policy of execution of development stimulation projects, supporting and infrastructural projects in old texture areas” and “utilization of the financial and intellectual power of people” and “providing suitable conditions for establishing an integrated management in the old texture” are of the most important parameters.
In the final part of the research, effective factors of refinement have been adjusted in 9 major indices. After that, in form of cross impact matrix and by the contribution of experts, the significance degree of each factor and their amount of impact on each other were determined. Then, through data analysis by software, the position of each of these factors has been recognized in the effectiveness-impressible plot. Given the distribution and the diversity of factors, the system is unstable. In unstable systems, two classes of adjustment factor and two-dimensional variables are also added to the set.
Finally, the most important factors influencing the refinement policies of Karaj town have been identified. These factors are “processes and buildings refinement operations simplification in distressed areas” and “supporting the establishment of districts refinement services administrations”. Refinement services administrations are established with the purpose of development and encouragement of life quality elevation, regeneration of the texture and the reinstatement of vitality, dynamism and cooperation, and strengthening of social liability. Moreover, these administrations attempt to create a connection with the people and their representatives, so that their optimized capabilities are utilized, and they promote the people level of knowledge about the existence of facilities and privileges through informing and instructing them. It can be said that the services and activities of such administrations are an important solution in simplification of districts processes and levels of refinement.
The urban planning system in the old texture areas needs a management that can utilize the necessary tools and resources for conduction of its plans and projects in relation of refinement and regeneration. This is to achieve the intended objectives and goals. Urban management needs to govern the matters that exist in the urban executive organization to conduct its plans and to achieve urban development. These responsibilities include planning, organizing, and coordination, controlling and monitoring, and leading. In order to define urban management and perceive its concepts, we need to accept that there ought to be a system or an organization to manage. Thus, the plans executive system and urban development plans comes to mind. Urban planning organization and executive system is not centered in a single organization because of the reliance of cities managements to the Ministry of Interior.
Integrated urban management means that decision making and conduction of responsibilities is submitted to municipalities. All the responsibilities and budgets are allocated to these bodies. Creating a suitable bed for integrated management in distressed areas is significant because many bodies are responsible for the affairs of distressed areas and each function in its own way. They are not coordinated through a single point (municipality). Therefore, integrated management in distressed areas will lead to more favorable results.