تحلیل عوامل کلیدی مؤثر بر برنامه‌ریزی شهر خلاق (مطالعۀ موردی: ارومیه)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی - کاربردی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

2 دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

3 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

شهرهای خلاق به‌عنوان مراکز نوآوری، خلاقیت و تبدیل ایده به ثروت شناخته می‌شوند. از آنجا که ایده و نوآوری، عناصر اصلی رقابتی در عصر جهانی‌شدن هستند، داشتن شهر خلاق، آرمان هر جامعه‌ای به‌شمار می‌آید. هدف پژوهش حاضر، شناسایی و تحلیل عوامل کلیدی مؤثر در برنامه‌ریزی شهر خلاق با تأکید بر شهر ارومیه است. نوع پژوهش کاربردی است و به روش‌های جدید علم آینده‌پژوهی، تحلیلی و اکتشافی انجام شده است. جامعة آماری آن سی نفر از استادان، متخصصان و کارشناسان حوزة برنامه‌ریزی شهری هستند. گردآوری داده‌ها برای بررسی مؤلفه‌های شهر خلاق، به دو صورت اسنادی (داده‌های ثانویه) و پیمایشی (داده‌های اولیه) صورت می­گیرد. این مؤلفه‌ها و معیارها عبارت‌اند ‌از: مقیاس، صنایع خلاق، طبقة خلاق، زیرساخت‌های خلاقیت، کارایی و اثربخشی، سرزندگی، فناوری ارتباطی، تنوع اجتماعی، سرمایة اجتماعی و کیفیت زندگی که برای این منظور، 16 زیرمعیار و 106 متغیر با بررسی دقیق منابع خارجی و داخلی انتخاب شدند. ابزار پژوهش پرسشنامه و مصاحبه است. برای تجزیه‌ و تحلیل داده‌ها، از روش‌های پنل خبرگان، تحلیل اثرات متقاطع و نرم‌افزار میک‌مک به­صورت ترکیبی استفاده شد. نتایج پژوهش و نحوة توزیع و پراکنش متغیرها در صفحة پراکندگی، نشان‌دهندة ناپایداری سیستم است. با توجه به نتایج نرم‌افزار میک‌مک، پانزده عامل به‌عنوان عوامل کلیدی انتخاب شدند که بیشترین تأثیرگذاری مستقیم و غیرمستقیم را داشتند. از میان این عوامل، شش عامل به طبقة خلاق و سه عامل به زیرساخت‌های خلاقیت مربوطند که بیشترین تأثیر را بر قرارگرفتن ارومیه در مسیر تحقق شهر خلاق دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

analyzing key factors influencing the planning of a creative city (case study: Urmia)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hussain Nazmfar 1
  • Ahmad Aftab 2
  • Ata Ghafari Gilandeh 1
  • Mirnajaf Mousavi 3
1 Associate Professor in Geography and Urban Planning, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
2 PhD in Geography and Urban Planning, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
3 Associate Professor in Geography and Urban Planning, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
The 21st century is a century of urbanizationinfluenced by lobalization globalization has that affected the economic and social transformation issues inof most cities in the world. The economic and social processes,  such as transfer of international capital, the steady increase in mobility and shifting of the talents and labor force of companies, that occurare widespread today in most cities around the world. - Such as the transfer of international capital, the steady increase in mobility and the shifting of the talents and labor force of companies, The This can clear the need for innovation and specialized services and dynamic and interconnected networks that to connect the local level to a vast geography of global markets- this proves this. Cities in the world are highly competing in the context of the global economy as network nodes are highly competing. These cities need to offer specialized products and creative services in the form of their relative advantages toto global world markets in order to gain a place inparticipate in the global economyic chain. They are also seeking to attract foreign capital and talent for sustainable economic development. ButHowever, it should be noted that these competitive advantages are not deployed anywhere in any city.  The creative city is a new initiative has evolved from a state of emergency to a new transition and to emphasizesemphasize on simultaneous attention to technology, infrastructure, manufacturing and human resources. In this regard, the present study aims to identify and analyze the key factors affecting the planning of the city with emphasis on the city of Urmia, to answer the following questions: What is the status of the system in is how to analyze the variables (in terms of stability and instability)? And to analyzeWhat are the key factors in creative urban planning in Urumia's creative city planning?
Methodology
This is an applied research in terms of nature,  and it is based on new methods of futures study and exploratory science, analytical and explorative. In this research, data collection methodhave been gathered  was used to study the components of the creative city ( in 10 main criteria:  including scale, creative industries, creative class, creativity infrastructure, efficiency and effectiveness, vitality, communication technology, social diversity, social capital, and quality of life. The analysis has with 16 sub-criteria and 106 indicators it's been chosen based on careful examination of external and internal resources) in order to answer the research questions in the scope of the study, . there There are two types of documents (including secondary data) and surveying (initial data), and . the The tools used in the survey method were questionnaires and interviews. The statistical population of this research is 30 persons of professors,  and experts and experts related to in the subject matter of the research. To analyze the data, a combination of expert panel methods, cross-impact analysis, and MicMac software have been used.
Results and discussion
According to the research criteria, 100 factors using MicMac software have been analyzed for to choose the main factors influencing the development of the creative city in Urmia. Dimensions of the matrix were 100 × 100, in whichwith 10 different sections were set. About 60.13% of the matrix is filled by the respondents. The degree of filling of the matrix is 60.13%, whichThis indicates that the selected factors have a relatively high and dispersed effect on each other. Of the total of 6013 evaluable relationships in this matrix, 3987 is the ratio of zero, . which This means that the factors do not affect each other or have not been mutually exclusive. The number one is 2106 2106 relationships (representing that, their number is one, meaning they have little effect on each other. Up to 2174 relationships, which, their number was 2,, meaning represnt that they had a fairly strong influence. The Up to 1040 relationships has  havebeen number 3, meaning that key factor relationships have been very influential and influencive. Finally, there were 693 relationships, their number P, which indicated the potential and indirect relationships of the factors.
 The distribution and dispersion of variables in the dispersion page tells shows the stability or instability of the system. This first analysis of the state of the system is onshows how to analyze effective Variables variablesare effective. The output of the system indicates the dispersion of the Influencing influencing variables in the creation and development of urban creativity in Urmia. The instability situation in the system is further affected by independent variables, . there There are a few other factors that indicate indicating that they have a high influencive influence on the system and the rest of the variables are in a similar situation to each other, with only varying degrees of intensity and weakness. In sumTherefore, the variables have two direct and indirect effects which in each of them is are decisive or influential variables, two-sided variables, influencive variables, independent variables, and regulatory variables. They are discussed in terms of the distribution of variables in the software output graph.
Conclusion
Introduction
The 21st century is a century of urbanizationinfluenced by globalization that affected the economic and social issues in most cities in the world. The economic and social processes, such as transfer of international capital, the steady increase in mobility and shifting of the talents and labor force of companies, are widespread today in most cities around the world. This can clear the need for innovation and specialized services and dynamic and interconnected networks to connect the local level to a vast geography of global markets. Cities in the world are highly competing in the context of the global economy as network nodes. These cities need to offer specialized products and creative services to global markets to participate in the global economy. They are also seeking to attract foreign capital and talent for sustainable economic development. However, it should be noted that these competitive advantages are not deployed anywhere in any city.  The creative city is a new initiative evolved from a state of emergency to a new transition to emphasize on simultaneous attention to technology, infrastructure, manufacturing and human resources. In this regard, the present study aims to identify and analyze the key factors affecting the planning of the city with emphasis on the city of Urmia, to answer the following questions: What is the status of the system is how to analyze the variables in terms of stability and instabilityAnd to analyze the key factors in creative urban planning in Urumia
Methodology
This is an applied research in terms of nature and it is based on new methods of future study and exploratory science. In this research, data have been gathered to study the components of creative city in 10 main criteria including scale, creative industries, creative class, creativity infrastructure, efficiency and effectiveness, vitality, communication technology, social diversity, social capital, and quality of life. The analysis has 16 sub-criteria and 106 indicators based on careful examination of external and internal resources in order to answer the research questions in the scope of the study. There are two types of documents including secondary data and surveying initial data. The tools used in the survey method were questionnaires and interviews. The statistical population of this research is 30 persons of professors and experts  in the subject matter of the research. To analyze the data, a combination of expert panel methods, cross-impact analysis, and MicMac software have been used.
Results and discussion
According to the research criteria, 100 factors using MicMac software have been analyzed to choose the main factors influencing the development of the creative city in Urmia. Dimensions of the matrix were 100 × 100, with10 different sections. About 60.13% of the matrix is filled by the respondents. This indicates that the selected factors have a relatively high and dispersed effect on each other. Of the total of 6013 relationships in this matrix, 3987 is the ratio of zero. This means that the factors do not affect each other or have not been mutually exclusive. The number one is 2106 relationships (representing that they have little effect on each other. Up to 2174 relationships, which their number was 2, represnt that they had a fairly strong influence. Up to 1040 relationships  have number 3, meaning that key factor relationships have been very influential and influencive. Finally, there were 693 relationships, their number P, which indicated the potential and indirect relationships of the factors.
 The distribution of variables in the dispersion shows the stability or instability of the system. This first analysis of the state of the system shows how to analyze effective variables. The output of the system indicates the dispersion of the influencing variables in the creation and development of urban creativity in Urmia. The instability situation in the system is further affected by independent variables. There are a few other factors indicating that they have a high influence on the system and the rest of the variables are in a similar situation to each other, with only varying degrees of intensity and weakness. Therefore, the variables have two direct and indirect effects which each of them are decisive or influential variables, two-sided variables, influencive variables, independent variables, and regulatory variables. They are discussed in terms of the distribution of variables in the software output graph.
Conclusion
The results of the research and the distribution and dispersion of the variables on the dispersion page indicate the system's instability. In the analysis of 100 variables selected by the MicMac software, the 15 factors were selected as the key factors given that they had the most important direct and indirect effects. Among these key factors, performance of service organizations has had the greatest impact on the planning of Urumia creative city. Distribution of urban services and population has been selected as the most effective factors in the planning of a creative city. We have selected 15 key factors. Six factors including physicians, lawmakers and top-level people, bachelors, technicians, specialists, masters and PhD professionals, and number of artists are related to the creative class and three factors including number of research and development units, number of researchers, and number of universities are related to creativity infrastructure. This indicates its high impact on the planning of Urmia creative city.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • creative city
  • cross-impact analysis
  • Mick Mac
  • Urmia city
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