عنوان مقاله [English]
In the late 1980s, a pedestrian approach to reduction of car ownership came in the opposite direction of urban automation, planning to build human-like cities closer to the scale of space design. As a new approach, pedestrian movement encouraged urban residents to use fewer cars by increasing congestion in urban areas and developing a public transport network. However, in many cities of Iran, urban sprawl development and rapid growth has surpassed the use of cars and motor vehicles intensifying the domination of the cavalry in urban roads. Therefore, in recent years, we have witnessed creation of various types of pedestrian spaces in the country.Some of the saces have been successful and in many cases unsuccessful. One of the reasons for justifying these unsuccessful experiences is that position of each experience is disregarded in the spatial structure of cities and was ignored by planners and designers. This study was investigated to select the appropriate pedestrian roads in the central fabric of Qom city. Hence, analysis of spatial configuration requires an approach that can respond to the complexities of the physical-spatial environment and help to understand the structure and spatial form of modern cities. In this study, the space syntax approach was used to study and analyze the urban spatial structure in the central part (District 7) of Qom. Accordingly, two key questions are raised, which the present research attempts to answer: a) how we can select appropriate urban roads? b) What are the major components affecting the pedestrian capability of the streets in the study area and which components have higher importance? The city of Qom as the second religious center in Iran attracts millions of pilgrims annually. The establishment of commercial centers, religious sites, educational facilities, hotels and numerous hotels around the holly Shrine of Masoumeh, due to their close proximity to the shrine, has made it possible for a large number of pilgrims to travel and settle in this context. Therefore, the pedestrianization of some of these streets can increase the sense of safety, promotion of the social role and enhance the spiritual sense of the passageways. It is important to consider the features of the artistic environment as well as the structure and configuration of the city of Qom to identify the spaces with the greatest potential for creating pavilions.
This research is conducted in three sections. First, to analyze the urban configuration, axial lines of Qom were prepared using AutoCAD 2007. In the next step, the axial lines for spatial analysis were depicted in the AutoCAD software. This map was analyzed in the UCL Depthmap10 software. Furthermore, VGA analysis was used in this software for visual analysis. Two criteria for permeability and land use mixing were also evaluated using Shannon entropy method in GIS. Each of the indices was weighted by Shannon entropy. Finally, by integrating the criteria and ranking using the VIKOR method, the studied axes were ranked for pedestrian capability.
Results and discussion
In this study, the axial map of the city of Qom was obtained by drawing 18292 lines in the AutoCAD software. Based on the centrality of the shrine, important streets were selected by immediate relationship with the shrine. Accordingly, five streets of 19-Dey, Enqelab, Taleghani, Imam Khomeini and Eram were investigated in this study.
Through this parameter of integration, one can determine the position of each space in its space hierarchy. Therefore, the streets with the highest degree of integration in a city map represent the city’s structure and flows. Therefore, it can be mentioned that Eram has access to all parts of the region and the city. Other streets such as Enqelab, Imam Khomeini and Taleghani and finally 19-Dey, where there is a slight difference in the value of integration, are considered the main artery of the second degree for movement.
Enqelab Street with 53 connections has the highest degree of spatial connectivity than other streets. The streets of 19-Dey (45), Eram (23), Imam Khomeini (15) and Taleghani (14) have low connectivity parameters.
Integration (R3) is an important tool in the city to understand pedestrian movement. Thus, the spaces with high local integration are spatial spaces with high pedestrian potential and high walkability. In this analysis, it was found that Enqelab Street had the highest local integration (4.42) and Taleghani Street had the smallest (3.16) of this parameter. This indicates the ability to move Enqelab Street in comparison with other streets.
Choice parameter can be used as a criterion to assess the preference and potential of moving urban spaces. The studies show that the highest degree of choice parameter in the region and even somehow in the city of Qom is dedicated to Eram Street.
In the theory of space syntax, when the characteristics of integration and connectivity parameters are checked in relation to each other, the ability to understand the paths by the residents will be determined. In this study, Enghelab has highest degree of intelligibility (26.97) among the other streets and 19-Dey Street with 22.93 in the second rank.
The higher control of a street means that the space has high spatial integrity; it is influenced by walking and encourages pedestrians to watch. According to a space syntax analysis, 19-Dey Street has the highest degree of control (20), and Enqelab Street is in the second rank with 19.50, Eram with 9.20 degrees of control is in the third rank.
This parameter is obtained by calculating the logarithm based on the 10 Choice parameters (LN10 Choice). The results indicate that Eram is ranked first with 7.94. Moreover, Enqelab with 7.84 and Imam Khomeini with 7.52 are ranked in the second and third places.
The results indicate that the highest Mean depth between the streets is on the 19-Dey Street with an average of 14.70 degrees. The streets of Taleghani (13.39), Enqelab (13.33), and Imam Khomeini (13.27), with a very small difference, are ranked second to fourth, in order. Eram Street with 12.82 degrees of MeanDepth parameter is more favorable than other streets.
In this part, the degree mixed use is applied. This is calculated by the entropy index. The results indicate that Enqelab Street with an entropy coefficient means that (1) has the best mixing status among the streets. Taleghani (0.77) and Eram (0.22), 19-Dey streets (0.19) and Imam Khomeini streets (0.00) are ranked two to five, in order.
The results indicate that 19-Dey has a higher utility in terms of the average number of intersections (3.40) compared with other streets. In other words, it has more intersections (47 intersections) than other streets.
The results show that the most appropriate average length of the block between the streets has been allocated to 19-Dey Street with 37 meters. Furthermore, compared with other streets, Eram has a maximum block length of 65 meters. In this study, Taleghani and Imam Khomeini streets with 48 and 45 meters in block length are in the next category.
Analysis of Visibility and Landscape Criteria
To analyze the visibility and landscape criteria in this study, the degree of "visible step depth" has been investigated. Eram Street with an average of 1.20 degrees of visibility of step depth has the most favorable value relative to other streets. The degrees of visible or the streets of Imam Khomeini (1.35), Enqelab (1.90), Taleghani and 19-Dey reach 2.94.
Street ratings using the VIKOR Model:
With all the variables in the research, the results of the ranking showed that Enqelab Street had a better position to become the pedestrian axis. In this study, the streets of Eram, 19-Dey, Taleghani and Imam Khomeini are ranked 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th, respectively.
The results of this study showed that the topological order of street patterns was important in space syntax. In addition, integration (Rn), local integration, mean depth, degree of connectivity, street intelligibility, control, spatial and spatial accessibility are among the most important determinants of pedestrianization of urban spaces and pedestrian movement. These parameters were used to prioritize the streets in terms of walkability functionality. Furthermore, the mixed landuse in the streets attracting pedestrians brings the source and destination closer to each other, making the journey more internal.