عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the most important principles in the traditional Iranian architecture, especially after Islam, is the principle of confidentiality. This is the best applied in all small buildings and large public buildings from residential buildings to public spaces. The aim of this study is to measure the level of confidentiality in old and new home (houses) in Yazd and compare their comparative approach in order to formulate strategies for moving towards the pattern of Islamic life in urban areas. Today, the growth of urbanization and industrialization of urban communities and the expansion of apartment life has led communities to quickly move away from beliefs and traditions. The growth of luxuries and decorations in urban houses of the world became ever more apparent in communities away from adherence to the principles in the patterns of housing of the traditional tissues of cities under the title of "privacy", "no aristocracy", and so on.
According to the research objectives and the components, the type of research is applied and its method is descriptive-analytic. Indicators of research are house forms in old and new textures. In this regard, 15 home forms have been selected based on random sampling. In order to analyze the data to find significant relationships among variables, we have used inferential statistics such as multi-regression coefficient, analysis of variance, and strategic planning of SWOT.
Results and discussion
The study of these principles of Islamic cities in the old neighborhoods of Yazd shows that the same facades of houses, sanctity and veil, elements designed in buildings such as oars, cries, corridors and high walls, three major private, semi-private and public spaces can represent the confidentiality. On the contrary, in the new neighborhoods of the city, the semi-private space has been lost and the residents have communicated directly with the public space. This has led to the disappearance of the principle of privacy in homes. But modern neighborhoods are influenced by modern architectures, such as observing the height of buildings, the lack of aristocracy of houses, the consideration of privacy spaces, and hierarchical observance have not been taken into consideration. In the Yazd Architecture, hanging and hijab is considered a principle. The privacy of the family has a special respect. Houses with veils and private realms are far from audiovisual rape. No original Yazd home can be found with non-Islamic view. An interesting point in designing the doors of the traditional houses is identification of the gender of the people by the placement of two cubes with different sounds of the Bam (a man named Kobe-clone on the left) and below (the female-ring-ring on the right). This has indicated the importance of confinement from the religious dimension. Given the level of confinement of houses in the old texture and the new Yazd texture area, it can be said that most of the buildings in the old texture have the principles of spatial hierarchy, because most houses have a certain height and also penthouses, corridors, and central courtyards. Thus, you can easily observe the atmosphere of strict confidentiality. However, the new neighborhoods of Yazd, as newly built neighborhoods, are also on the path to urban development. They have been under the influence of modern architecture elements such as height of buildings, the areas of confidentiality, and the hierarchy. The streets of these neighborhoods are multi-storey houses next to one-story houses so that if you look out the window, you can see all the neighbor's courtyards. If the stairway windows on the stairs of the apartments look outside, in addition to the courtyard of the neighbors' house, room space is also visible.
The results show that in most of the houses of the old textures in Yazd, all the principles of confidentiality have been taken into consideration, so that the main private, semi-private and public spaces are clearly appeared. These principles are influenced by the residential patterns of foreigners in new neighborhoods. These houses and the semi-private spaces are not affected by outsourcing architecture. The results of the regression coefficient show a direct and strong correlation between the patterns of new homes and the respect of the confinements of the houses relative to each other. In spite of not considering the principles of Islamic Housing in the new textures of Yazd, the visual, audio, accessibility, smell and social interactions of residential units have been greatly forgotten in the patterns of new homes. This situation, in the SWOT analysis model, expressed the clarity. In this regard, the most important strategies in this field are the enforcement of the guarantee of the principle for confidentiality in new construction, the hierarchy of spatial inputs of homes, increase in the interior spaces per capita in the houses in new structures.