عنوان مقاله [English]
The growing urbanization and demographic imbalance between urban and rural areas of the country is not a new simple topic. Although there is a high correlation between urbanization and human development, but its quick growth without planning and policy making would have some consequences. Therefore, a comprehensive recognition and analysis of the progress, dimensions and the factors related to the urbanization is the first and critical condition to make decisions and plans. Urbanization system and its fast growth in the developing countries has caused a massive influx into the cities and the emergence of services, broad marginalization, hidden unemployment and also the rise of duality in the social networks of the immigrants in the cities. The cities of underdeveloped countries are hybrid institutions emerged as a result of two reactions: Firstly, reaction to the division of labour as a local phenomenon and secondly, reaction to the integration in the global economy. In Iran, the explosive growth of the urban population and its real quick growth happened after the 1967. This is the reflection of the land reform and national investments and the rapid growth of the urban investments. In 2012, the urban population of Iran has exceeded over two-thirds. Urbanization is affected by many various factors such as economic, social, and cultural activities and livelihood, infrastructural, and services status of the societies. Therefore, the presented research is condudted with the purpose of recognition of the current urbanization pattern of the country based on the spatial concentration and autocorrelation and also investigating the effects.
The presented research is carried out with descriptive-analytical methof and correlation and also based on the document studies. Among the used documental resources are Thematic Reports of the Statistical Center of Iran (2012), Statistical Reports of the Ministry of Sport and Youth (2012), The Reports of Department of Economic Studies of the Keshawarzi Bank (2012), and Agricultural Statistics of the Ministry of the Agriculture (2013). Therefore, the Moran and Gary models are used in the ArcGIS to evaluate the urbanization pattern in the country. The correlation coefficient of Pearson is utilized in the SPSS to evaluate the relation between urbanization with various industrial economic, social, cultural, infrastructural, services and agricultural development factors. The coefficient of dispersion is used to evaluate the difference in the growth of urbanization between the states of the country during the period from 1986 to 2012.
Results and discussions
The findings of the Moran and Gary models showed that the spatial pattern of urbanization in the country during the period from 1996 to 2012 was concentrated and clustered in the country. It was also found that the urbanization pattern corresponds to the pattern of industrial development in the country.
- The results of the growing the urbanization during the period from 1986 to 2012 shows that in the majority of cases, the provinces have experienced the rapid growth of urbanization almost equally. The majority of their population lives in the cities nowadays.
- The urbanization pattern has a strong relationship with the pattern of distribution of industrial centers
- Generally, the growth of the urbanization has a direct relation with the promotion of economic indicators, especially income indicator.
- Urbanization and infrastructural indicators have a significant relation with a high compatibility. That is in a way that necessary infrastructures are considerably provided in the cities.
- Growth and development of services and facilities does not comply with the urbanization growth. The speed of urbanization has been much more than the speed of the urbanism.
- Urbanization has caused a promotion in the level of education and expertise. It has been cleared that the most important reason for the rapid urban population growth is the internal migrations (inter-provincial), creation of new urban areas (Becoming the countryside to the cities) and also external migrations (Interstate). These conditions have notable effects on the urbanization, except in metropolises such as Tehran.
- The health and therapeutic indicators have increased parallel to the urbanization growth and it has faced the urbanization with numerous problems.
- Unexpectedly, even some of the agricultural development indicators such as the amount of agricultural production, beneficiaries with agricultural education and agricultural companies have a significant and meaningful relation with the urbanization. One of the important reasons for the increasing amount of agricultural production in the more-urbanized provinces is the need of urban population centers (especially metropolises) for more agricultural products and also the existence of fertile lands near the population centers. In addition, proximity to urban population centers could influence the creation and growth of the expertise and organizational agricultural dimensions.
The current urbanization pattern in the country is cluster-like and the spatial concentration and autocorrelation is also clear in a way that the urbanite clusters of the country are located in the northern and central parts. In addition, neighboring provinces in the southern half are the lower zone of urbanization. Factors like the existence of the important industrial centers of the country and also the poor environmental potential in the central areas of Iran are among the important reasons of such urbanization pattern in the country. Generally, it can be said that despite of the problems and significant deficiencies in the field of health, infrastructure, and other services, urbanization is still welcomed warmly. Agricultural development and even the promotion of living conditions of villagers could not satisfy their interests in better life styles in the countryside.