عنوان مقاله [English]
The intensity and complexity of the urban issues and specifying the ineffectiveness of traditional bureaucratic systems and up-down decision-making rendered pursuit of the flexible and democratic approaches in the urban management urgency issue. Thus, it is needed that a decentralized and participatory structure in managing the urban affairs for good urban governance is also introduced as one of the most sustainable ways in this field. In this regard, the NBN program called "Neighbors, build the environment around their neighborhood " is as one of the most successful ways of a good urban governance over the past ten years in Rochester, New York. In this program, all citizens are trying to organize the environment around them. In general, the aim of the present study is to answer the following questions: Is it possible to implement a participatory urban governance model (NBN program) in district 2 of Tabriz Metropolitan Area? With regard to the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, what is the position of the considered district in the area of the implementation of this program? What are the four strategies and which is the superior strategy?
The present study is applied research using a descriptive-analytic methodology. This study is conducted based on documentary studies including reports, paper, book and referable resources, and field surveys including questionnaire, observation and interview, and Delphi method. The statistical population of this research is all the residents in district 2 of Tabriz Metropolitan Area and the sample size was calculated up to 382 people using Cochran's formula. Firstly, a detailed questionnaire was developed in cooperation with the municipal experts of the 2nd district municipality to determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in the executive field of participatory urban governance (NBN program). The questions have been provided as multiple answers options using theoretical foundations and information extracted from the detailed questionnaire. The questions have 5 answers based on Likert Scale, each of which is different in terms of the severity and weakness of the question. According to the preliminary questionnaires that have been conducted, it has been tried to state the unclear questions in another form in order to be comprehensible to all citizens. Up to 30 questionnaires were prepared in the preliminary questionnaires to examine 30 citizens of district 2 of Tabriz metropolitan. It is worth noting that the reliability of the questionnaire based on Cronbach's alpha is 0.835 and, so, desirable tool. It has been carried out to examine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats according to the information obtained from the questionnaire, using the SWOT technique, and then it has been used to weight the factors and rank the cases. Finally, the strategies have been provided in the form of quadratic strategies and formulating the QSPM matrix to prioritize and select the best strategies. The SWOT technique has been adopted to examine the status of the feasibility of participatory urban governance (NBN program) in the mentioned area to identify the strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats and analyze internal and external factors to maximize strengths and opportunities and minimize weaknesses and threats.
Results and discussion
The results indicate that the total score of the internal factors (strengths and weaknesses) is 1.96, which is lower than the ideal score (2.5). This means that the 2nd district of Tabriz Metropolitan Area, in terms of the possibility of using the participatory urban governance model (NBN program), has unfavorable internal conditions. This region has dramatic weaknesses in terms of the internal factors. The total final score of the external factors (opportunities and threats) is 1.78 and as internal factors, it is lower than the normal score (2.5); that is, the aforementioned region has not been able to react against the exogenous factors properly. In other words, it has not been able to take advantage of the factors considered as opportunities and avoid the factors threatening them. The internal-external factors matrix also indicates that the location of this region in terms of the possibility of using this program is in the first priority in a defensive position, that is, the strategy of the WT group (defensive) and the strategy of the WO group (conservative) is in the second priority. In other words, defensive strategy has been chosen as a superior strategy. This means that the region faces weaknesses and threats in order to apply the participatory urban governance model (the NBN program) and should reduce the weaknesses and prevent threats. According to the quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM) to prioritize WT strategies, "eliminating any algebraic space by custodians and managers of urban affairs can be helpful to create interactive space as the first priority.
In Iran, most of the programs and plans have been performed in an up to down state due to some factors including the disintegration of social relations in the city, poor social and local supports of the urban development plans and lack of a good governance model. Indeed, the dominant approach of the authorities is non-participatory. This matter has led to the lack of implementation of justice, rule of law, transparency, and all of these factors challenge the sustainable development. Therefore, moving from heterogeneous management to good governance is an inevitable choice. In this regard, one of the most effective practices in the governance of contemporary urban areas is the conventional management method that is called NBN. This method is based on the maximum participation of citizens. It can be considered as one of the most serious steps to focus on centralized management and "up-down planning" of the city and move towards decentralized participatory governance and "down -up planning".