امکان‌سنجی کاربرد مدل حکمروایی شهری مشارکتی در سطح واحد همسایگی (برنامۀ NBN) در تبریز (مطالعۀ موردی: منطقۀ 2)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی - کاربردی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری دانشگاه تبریز

2 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

ساختارهای سلسله‌مراتبی که به‌عنوان «رویکرد سنتی» شناخته می‌شوند، ظرفیت لازم را برای استفادة مطلوب از ظرفیت‌های محلی و ایجاد محیطی با کیفیت بالا ندارند؛ از این‌رو لازم است ساختاری غیرمتمرکز و مشارکتی در الگوی ادارة امور شهر ایجاد شود تا حکمروایی خوب شهری نیز یکی از پایدارترین شیوه‌های اعمال مدیریت شهری به‌شمار بیاید. براین‌اساس، NBN با اصطلاح «همسایه‌ها، محیط پیرامون همسایگی خود را می‌سازند» یکی از موفق‌ترین برنامه‌ها در زمینة حکمروایی خوب شهری طی ده سال گذشته در شهر روچستر نیویورک است. در این برنامه، همة شهروندان سعی دارند تا محیط زندگی اطراف خود را ساماندهی کنند. هدف پژوهش توصیفی-تحلیلی حاضر امکان‌سنجی کاربرد مدل حکمروایی شهری مشارکتی در سطح واحد همسایگی (برنامة NBN) در منطقة 2 کلان‌شهر تبریز است. جامعة آماری براساس فرمول کوکران 382 نفر است. به‌منظور گردآوری اطلاعات نیز از پرسشنامه و برای تجزیه و تحلیل آن از روش تحلیل راهبردی SWOT استفاده شده است. براساس تحلیل عوامل درونی و بیرونی، امکان کاربرد برنامة NBN در منطقة 2 کلان‌شهر تبریز وجود ندارد و وضعیت این منطقه در زمینة اجرای این برنامه در گروه تدافعی WT قرار دارد؛ یعنی باید به کاهش نقاط ضعف و جلوگیری از تهدیدات در منطقه پرداخته شود. پس از تدوین راهبردهای چهارگانه و ماتریس کمی برنامه‌ریزی راهبردی (QSPM) برای اولویت‌دهی به راهبردهای WT، «رفع هرگونه فضای جبری از سوی متولیان و مدیران امور شهری و کمک به ایجاد فضای تعاملی» اولویت اول محسوب می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Feasibility Study of Participatory Urban Governance Model in the Neighborhood (NBN Program) in Tabriz (Case study: Zone 2)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahrivar Rostaei 1
  • Forough Andesta 2
1 Associate Professor of Geoghraphy and Urban Planning, Environmental Sciences and Planning College, University of Tabriz, Iran
2 MA in Geoghraphy and Urban Planning, Envitromental Sciences and Planning College, University of Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
The intensity and complexity of the urban issues and specifying the ineffectiveness of traditional bureaucratic systems and up-down decision-making rendered pursuit of the flexible and democratic approaches in the urban management urgency issue. Thus, it is needed that a decentralized and participatory structure in managing the urban affairs for good urban governance is also introduced as one of the most sustainable ways in this field. In this regard, the NBN program called "Neighbors, build the environment around their neighborhood " is as one of the most successful ways of a good urban governance over the past ten years in Rochester, New York. In this program, all citizens are trying to organize the environment around them. In general, the aim of the present study is to answer the following questions: Is it possible to implement a participatory urban governance model (NBN program) in district 2 of Tabriz Metropolitan Area? With regard to the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, what is the position of the considered district in the area of the implementation of this program? What are the four strategies and which is the superior strategy?
 
Methodology  
The present study is applied research using a descriptive-analytic methodology. This study is conducted based on documentary studies including reports, paper, book and referable resources, and field surveys including questionnaire, observation and interview, and Delphi method. The statistical population of this research is all the residents in district 2 of Tabriz Metropolitan Area and the sample size was calculated up to 382 people using Cochran's formula. Firstly, a detailed questionnaire was developed in cooperation with the municipal experts of the 2nd district municipality to determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in the executive field of participatory urban governance (NBN program). The questions have been provided as multiple answers options using theoretical foundations and information extracted from the detailed questionnaire. The questions have 5 answers based on Likert Scale, each of which is different in terms of the severity and weakness of the question. According to the preliminary questionnaires that have been conducted, it has been tried to state the unclear questions in another form in order to be comprehensible to all citizens. Up to 30 questionnaires were prepared in the preliminary questionnaires to examine 30 citizens of district 2 of Tabriz metropolitan. It is worth noting that the reliability of the questionnaire based on Cronbach's alpha is 0.835 and, so, desirable  tool. It has been carried out to examine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats according to the information obtained from the questionnaire, using the SWOT technique, and then it has been used to weight the factors and rank the cases. Finally, the strategies have been provided in the form of quadratic strategies and formulating the QSPM matrix to prioritize and select the best strategies. The SWOT technique has been adopted to examine the status of the feasibility of participatory urban governance (NBN program) in the mentioned area to identify the strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats and analyze internal and external factors to maximize strengths and opportunities and minimize weaknesses and threats.
Results and discussion
The results indicate that the total score of the internal factors (strengths and weaknesses) is 1.96, which is lower than the ideal score (2.5). This means that the 2nd district of Tabriz Metropolitan Area, in terms of the possibility of using the participatory urban governance model (NBN program), has unfavorable internal conditions. This region has dramatic weaknesses in terms of the internal factors. The total final score of the external factors (opportunities and threats) is 1.78 and as internal factors, it is lower than the normal score (2.5); that is, the aforementioned region has not been able to react against the exogenous factors properly. In other words, it has not been able to take advantage of the factors considered as opportunities and avoid the factors threatening them. The internal-external factors matrix also indicates that the location of this region in terms of the possibility of using this program is in the first priority in a defensive position, that is, the strategy of the WT group (defensive) and the strategy of the WO group (conservative) is in the second priority. In other words, defensive strategy has been chosen as a superior strategy. This means that the region faces weaknesses and threats in order to apply the participatory urban governance model (the NBN program) and should reduce the weaknesses and prevent threats. According to the quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM) to prioritize WT strategies, "eliminating any algebraic space by custodians and managers of urban affairs can be helpful to create interactive space  as the first priority.   
Conclusion
In Iran, most of the programs and plans have been performed in an up to down state due to some factors including the disintegration of social relations in the city, poor social and local supports of the urban development plans and lack of a good governance model. Indeed, the dominant approach of the authorities is non-participatory. This matter has led to the lack of implementation of justice, rule of law, transparency, and all of these factors challenge the sustainable development. Therefore, moving from heterogeneous management to good governance is an inevitable choice. In this regard, one of the most effective practices in the governance of contemporary urban areas is the conventional management method that is called NBN. This method is based on the maximum participation of citizens. It can be considered as one of the most serious steps to focus on centralized management and "up-down planning" of the city and move towards decentralized participatory governance and "down -up planning".

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • good urban governance
  • NBN Program
  • SWOT analysis
  • second district of Tabriz Metropolitan Area
اسفندی، سعید، 1391، امکان‌سنجیپیاده‌سازیمدل حکمرانیشهریمشارکتیدر سطح واحدهمسایگی (NBN)  درمنطقة22شهر تهران، مجموعه مقالات همایش ملی حکمرانی خوب شهری، شهرداری تهران، معاونت امور اجتماعی و فرهنگی، جلد دوم، صص 109-132.
اهم ضوابط و مقررات طرح تفصیلی تبریز، 1392، سازمان معاونت شهرسازی و معماری.
پرهیزکار، اکبر و غلامرضا کاظمیان، 1384، «رویکرد حکمروایی شهری و ضرورت آن در مدیریت منطقة کلانشهری تهران»، فصلنامة پژوهش‌های اقتصادی، دورۀ 5، شمارة 16، صص 29-50.
حاجی‌زاده، جواد و جلال میرآب، 1390، گزارشتحلیلیاز نتایجسرشماریسال 1390 به تفکیکمناطقده‌گانةشهرداریتبریز، معاونت برنامه‌ریزی و توسعه، مدیریت آمار و تحلیل اطلاعات.
رفیعیان، مجتبی و سید علی حسین‌پور، 1390، حکمرواییخوبشهریازمنظرنظریاتشهرسازی، انتشارات طحان، تهران.
رهنما، محمدرحیم، خاکپور، براتعلی و مجتبی صادقی، 1391، «تحلیل مدیریت استراتژیک در کلان­شهر مشهد با مدل SWOT»، نشریۀ جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی، دورۀ 16، شمارۀ 42، صص 173- 198.
زیاری، کرامت‌اله، نیک‌پی، وحید و علی حسینی، 1391، «سنجش میزان مشارکت شهروندان در مدیریت شهری براساس الگوی حکمرانی خوب شهری (مطالعة موردی: شهر یاسوج)»، فصلنامة مسکن و محیط روستا، دورۀ 32، شمارة 141، صص 69-86.
صفائی‌پور، مسعود، امان‌پور، سعید و زهرا نادری چگنی، 1392، «ارزیابی و تحلیل میزان تحقق‌پذیری حکمرانی خوب شهری در شهر خرم‌آباد»، فصلنامة جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری چشم‌انداز زاگرس، سال پنجم، شمارة 17، صص 115-130.
کاظمیان، غلامرضا و نوید سعیدی رضوانی، 1381، امکان‌سنجیواگذاریوظایفجدیدبهشهرداری‌ها،مدیریتشهریوشهرداری‌هادر ایران، سازمان شهرداری‌های کشور، جلد دوم، انتشارات سازمان شهرداری‌های کشور.
کمانرودی کجوری، موسی و محمد بیگدلی، 1393، «بررسی تطبیقی قوانین و برنامه‌های توسعة شهری با اصول حکمروایی خوب (مطالعة موردی: برنامه‌های توسعة شهری تهران)»، فصلنامة مطالعات شهری، دورۀ 3، شمارة 11، صص 39-50.
مرتضوی، مهدی، 1392، مدیریتمحلیوحکمرواییشهری،بانگاهیبهساختارمدیریتشهریژاپن،کره‌جنوبی،ترکیه و فرانسه، مرکز مطالعات و برنامه‌ریزی شهر تهران، چاپ اول، شهرداری تهران.
موحد، علی و همکاران، 1393، «بررسی توسعة محله‌های شهری با تأکید بر الگوی حکمروایی خوب شهری (محدودة مورد مطالعه: منطقة 19 شهرداری تهران)»، فصلنامة مطالعات برنامه‌ریزی شهری، سال دوم، شمارة 7، صص 147-176.
Esfandi, S., 2012, Feasibility Study on the Implementation of a Participatory Urban Governance Model at the Neighborhoods Level (NBN) in the 22nd District of Tehran, a Collection of Articles from the National Conference on Good Governance, Tehran Municipality, Department of Social and Cultural Affairs, Vol. 2, PP. 109-132. (In Persian)
The Importance of Provisions and Policy of Formal Scheme, 2013, Urbanism and Architecture Adjutancy Organization,20-38.
Parhizkar, A., and Kazemian, Gh., 2006, Urban Ruling Approach and Its Necessitation in Managing Metropolis of Tehran, Journal of the Economic Research, Vol. 5 No. 16, PP. 29-50. (In Persian)
Hajizadeh, J., and Mirab, J., 2011, Analytical Report of Census in 1390 Each Separate Decuple Zones of Tabriz Municipality, Planning and Development Adjutancy, Statistics and Information Analysis Management. (In Persian)
Rafeeian, M., and Hoseynpour, A., 2011, Reasonable Urban Ruling Through Urbanism Theories, Tahan Publication, Tehran. (In Persian)
Rahnama, M., Khakpour, B., and Sadeghi,M., 2012, Strategic Management Analysis in Mashhad Metropolis with SWOT Model, Geography and Planning, Volume 16, Issue 42, Pages 173-198.  (In Persian)
Ziari, K., Nikpey, V., and Hoseyni, A., 2012, The Measurement of Citizens Participation in Urban Management Based on Reasonable Urban Ruling (Case Study:Yasuj), Journal of Housing and Rural Environment, Vol. 32, No. 141, PP. 69-86. (In Persian)
Safaeepour, M., Amanpour, S., and Naderi Chegani, Z,. 2013, Assessment and Analysis of Feasibility of Reasonable Urban Ruling in Khorramabad, Urban Planning and Geography Periodicals About Zagros, Vol. 5, No. 17, PP. 115-130 (In Persian)
Kazemian, G., amd Saeedi Rezvani, N., 2002, The Feasibility of New Responsibilities Cession to Municipalities, Urban and Municipalities Management in Iran, The Municipality Organization, Vol. 2, Publications of the Municipal Organization of Iran. (In Persian)
Kamanroudi Kajvari, M., and Bigdeli, M., 2014, The Comparative Study of Urban Development Provisions and Plans with Reasonable Ruling (Case Study:Tehran Urban Developmental Plans), Journal of Urban Studies, Vol. 3, No. 11, PP. 39-50. (In Persian)
Mortazavi, M., 2013, Local Management and Urban Ruling, Considering Japan, South Korea, Turkey and France Urban Management Structure, Urban Planning and Studies Center of Tehran, Tehran Municipality. (In Persian)
Movahed, A. et al., 2014, The Study of Urban Local Development with Emphasis on Reasonable Urban Ruling (Related Case Study: Zone 19,Tehran), Quarterly Journal of Urban Structure and Function Studeis, Vol. 2, No. 7, PP. 147-176. (In Persian)
Atkinson, R., 1998, The New Urban Governance And Urban Regeneration, Managing Community Participation.
Fen Kooi, A., 2006, Neighbors Building Neighborhoods: A Critical Look At Citizen, Participation In Rochester, Department Of City And Regional Planning At Cornell University.
John, G., Burce, A., and Tim P., 2000, Principles for Good Governance in the 21st Century, Policy Brief, No. 15 - Institute On Governance, Ottawa, Canada, PP: 1-9.
 Mc Laughlin, B., 1973, Control and Urban Planning, London, Faber and Faber.
Mckinlay, P., 2002, Globisation, Subsidiarity and Enabling the Governance of Our Communitie,1-12, Http://Mdl.Co.Nz/Readingroom/Governance/Globalsub.Html.
Nurudin, S., Hashim, R., and Zulkifli, Nursyahida, 2015, Public Participation Process at Local Government Administration: A Case Study I Seremban Municipal Council, Malaysia, 2nd Global Conference on Business and Social Sceince, Indonesia,17-18 September, PP. 505-512.
Relhan, G., Lonkova, K., and Huque, R., 2014, Good Urba Governance Through ICT: Issues, Analysis and Strategies, Africa Urban and Water Sector Unit (AFTUM), The World Bank, PP. 11-12.
Srinivas, H., 1997, Understandig the Concept of Governance, https://Gdrc.Org/U-Gov/Governance-Understand.Html.
Taylor, P., 2000, UNCHS (Habitat), The Global Campain for Good Urban Governance, Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 2, No. 6, PP. 1-24.