عنوان مقاله [English]
Spatial inequality and disbalance among the citizens of different area in a city is not a new phenomenon in cities of the world. However, in developing countries, there are differences in egregious social- economic inequality and imbalance in the distribution of urban services. This is because spatial structure of a city is formed of personal elements that are mutually together and the inconstancy of each of these components will affect the whole structure. In the present age, the main factor crisis of human societies is rooted in social inequalities and lack justice. Therefore, the important goals of this research is to check and analyze his distribution of urban services of look-out spatial justice in Kerman city as well as to evaluate the relations between distribution of population and urban services from spatial look-out. What is the accessibility of Kerman people to the services of the Kerman municipality in the urban districts? Are municipal services of Kerman properly distributed among the urban districts?
The justice of the spatial distribution of the services should have suitable distribution with proportional facilities and services (Kharazmi, 2008). On this basis, there are two prominent axese in the spatial justice, circumstance life situation (social environment and the physical environment) and the distribution of opportunities, and accessibility to social, physical and allegorical infrastructures. Many serious urban management challenges are related to spatial inequality in distribution of urban services. Increased focus of urban planners on urban influence strategy has increased population density and people's proximity to public transport, engagement, and urban amenities. The polarization of the spatial structure of a city may be resulted from management policies in giving privileges to an environment in attracting facilities and services or the inability of an environment to attract facilities and services. Therefore, the most important factors in urban planning are the use of spaces and distribution, and in other words, the fair distribution of space in the city. In this case, the user services and urban services are among the most effective factors meeting demographic needs, raising public interest. They can enhance dimensions of spatial, social and economic justice.
This research has a descriptive-analytic methodology. The statistical population is four urban areas of Kerman. Up to 14 criteria public service indicators have been scrutinized that have been scattered across the urban areas of Kerman. In this research, we initially evaluated the spatial distribution of the entropy of the population using the Wasps and Vikor models. The distribution of services in the urban areas of Kerman has been calculated. The Spearman method is also used to calculate the correlation between population variables and access to services in urban areas of Kerman.
Results and discussion
For spatial distribution of services in urban areas of Kerman, Vikor and Wasps multi-index models have been used in this research using 14 criteria. All of these criteria are positive indicators. The data have been gathered from documentary and field studies. The study options in this research are four areas of Kerman. In order to analyze the spatial distribution characteristics of the population in four urban areas, the city of Kerman has been used for entropy coefficient model. Using this model, we can determine the spatial equilibrium of population deployment and the number of cities in the urban, provincial, regional and national levels. Based on the values calculated in step 6 for the options, districts 1 and 3 are above the rest of the area. The final ranking of the WSM and the WSM model also shows that districts 1 and 3 are higher than the rest of the regions.
Based on the results of the research, the per capita budget of poor regions such as regions 3 and 4 is less than that of districts 1 and 2. Perhaps one of the main reasons for that is the difference in population density. Anyway, this way of distributing budgets, formed by spatial inequalities, is likely to be exacerbated. Also, the districts 1 and 3 have the lowest per capita park area and the least access to the hospital. However, the free medical services of Kerman Municipality in health are also worth noting in terms of its distribution in different regions. In terms of the index of day-markets and fruit and vegetable fields, some districts like 1 and 3 share less. It is noteworthy that the poor urban districts have good access to these fields and markets. Filling leisure is in the form of sports and cultural activities of urban services. In terms of per capita sport spaces in districts 2 and 3 and cultural spaces in districts 2 and 3 have a good status. Access to public transport services is one of the features of social justice in the distribution of spatial services in the city. This is especially important because the residents of Kerman in districts 2 and 3 are largely dependent on the public transportation system due to lack of access to personal transport. Access to educational services is greater in the central parts of the city, and the South and Southwest sectors have an appropriate access to these types of services. The northern districts, besides the districts 3, are relatively well-placed in terms of access to educational services, but access to educational services in western regions of Kerman (district 2) is not appropriate. In general, the best access to educational services belonging to the center of the southern areas of the city has been concentrated. These services are concentrated in the center and central part of the south Kerman. The concentration of services and administrative offices in district 1 of Kerman is far more than other areas. According to this, the focus of services for public libraries of the city is also greater in area 1. One of the important components of quality of life in the city is the availability of services related to gas stations, fire stations and cinema. Most of these services are located in districts 2, 3 and 4. On the other hand, district 1 has the lowest number of these services.