برنامه‌ریزی راهبردی توسعۀ محلۀ آخوند شهر قزوین با رویکرد بازآفرینی اجتماع-محور

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی - کاربردی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه شهیدبهشتی

2 دانشیار برنامه‌ریزی شهری و منطقه‌ای، دانشگاه شهیدبهشتی

چکیده

رویکردهای بهسازی و نوسازی شهری در سیر تکاملی از بازسازی شهری تا بازآفرینی شهری مطرح می‌شوند. بازآفرینی شهری رویکردی جامع، یکپارچه و کل‌نگر است که با توجه هم‌زمان به ابعاد اجتماعی، اقتصادی و محیط‌زیستی، به‌منزلة ابزاری مؤثر برای ارتقای پایداری و افزایش سطح کیفیت زندگی کاربرد دارد. رویکرد بازآفرینی اجتماع‌محور در یک طبقه‌بندی از بازآفرینی شهری قرار می‌گیرد که اشکال جدید مداخله و مشارکت اجتماعات محلی در بازآفرینی شهری را برای عصر جدیدی که روش‌های سنتی منجر به شکست شده‌اند مطرح می‌کند و پتانسیل‌هایی برای ارائة ظرفیت‌های باارزش و ارائة دانش محلی و مردمی دارد. هدف بازآفرینی اجتماع‌محور توانمندسازی اجتماعات محلی دارای رکود اقتصادی، اجتماعی و محیط‌زیستی و بازسازی اجتماعات خود است. محلة آخوند شهر قزوین، یکی از محله‌های تاریخی این شهر است که از دیدگاه کالبدی، اقتصادی، اجتماعی، محیط‌زیستی و مدیریتی-نهادی شرایط نامناسبی دارد؛ بنابراین هدف این مقاله تدوین برنامه و راهبردهایی براساس اصول رویکرد بازآفرینی اجتماع‌محور به‌منظور مرتفع‌کردن مشکلات این محله است. پژوهش حاضر توصیفی-تحلیلی و کاربردی است که با توجه به ویژگی‌ها و ابعاد آن، جمع‌آوری اطلاعات و داده‌ها برای تجزیه و تحلیل ترکیبی به‌کمک دو روش کتابخانه‌ای-اسنادی و پیمایش میدانی (از طریق مشاهده و مصاحبه و نظرسنجی) انجام شد. در این پژوهش، مدل شش‌مرحله‌ای برای فرایند بازآفرینی اجتماع‌محور محلة آخوند ارائه، و درنهایت راهبردها، سیاست‌ها و اقداماتی در همة ابعاد کالبدی، اقتصادی، اجتماعی، محیط‌زیستی و مدیریتی-نهادی به‌صورت جامع و یکپارچه برای بهبود وضعیت محله پیشنهاد شد. راهبردهای برتر بر پایة اطلاع‌رسانی، آموزش، توانمندسازی و ظرفیت‌سازی ساکنان و مدیران، مشارکت و بهره‌گیری از انواع سرمایه‌ها و دارایی‌های اجتماع محلی در زمینة بهسازی و نوسازی و احیای هویت تاریخی و مسکونی محله قرار گرفت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Strategic Planning of Akhund Neighborhood in Qazvin City with Community-led Urban Regeneration Approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Ghannad 1
  • Mozaffar Sarrafi 2
1 MA in Urban Planning, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor of urban and regional planning, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction  
Urban rehabilitation and renovation approaches in the evolution trend are considered from urban reconstruction to urban regeneration. The urban regeneration is a comprehensive, integrated, and holistic approach applied as an effective factor to sustainable promotion and quality of life enhancing according to the social dimensions along with economic environment. In a classification of urban regeneration, community-led urban regeneration proposes new forms of community intervention and participation of urban regeneration for recent decay, which traditional methods have failed. This method represents potentials for valuable capacity and grassroots knowledge. The aim of community-led urban regeneration is to enable local communities with social, economic, and environmental stagnation to reconstruct their communities. Four strategic goals in neighborhood regeneration through local community interventions include promoting social capital, inclusion and social cohesion, governance, and service provision. Community-based regeneration will increase the involvement and participation of the local community. Local community participation means strengthening the ability to succeed in urban regeneration projects. Participation is a very important part of the process of self-help and local community development. The participation is the natural result of empowerment and empowerment is the goal of the development. Encouraging local communities to benefit from their own resources leads to greater integration and sustainability because residents are likely to protect the the resources of the neighborhood in which they intervene and participate.
The Akhund neighborhood located in Qazvin city is one of the historical neighborhoods in this city, where there are inappropriate conditions in dimensions of economic, socio-cultural, physical, environmental, and management-institutional issues. Therefore, the aim of this research is the representation of plans and strategies based on community-led urban regeneration principles to remove neighborhood problems.
Methodology
Research methodology of this study is descriptive-analytic with a practical goal. Given the size and characteristics of this research, the data have been gathered with library and document and field studies including observation, interview, and survey especially at the stage of explaining problems. In this research, a six-step model is presented for community-led urban regeneration in this neighborhood. The strategic planning process has been carried out in six stages of the status knowledge and assessment, the preparation of a neighborhood/local community problems statement, visioning statement, the formulation of goals and strategies for the neighborhood, policy making, and finally, the action plans. Then strategies, policies, and action plans are proposed in all dimensions of economic, socio-cultural, physical, environmental, and management-institutional aspects in the form of comprehensive and integrated programs to improve neighborhood conditions. SWOT method has been used to formulate the strategies and to determine the Strength-Opportunity strategies (SO), Strength-Threats strategies (ST), Weakness-Opportunity strategies (WO), and Weakness- Threats strategies (WT)  in the form of five areas of decision-making in economic, socio-cultural, physical, environmental, and management-institutional aspects. Then, strategies have been evaluated and the best strategy has been selected by Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM). Ultimately, higher priorities strategies are identified in every topic fields and, then, policies and action plans have been expressed for them.
Results and Discussion
The main strategies in the physical dimension are including renovation and rehabilitation of distressed area and revival of the residential identity of the neighborhood, providing a shortage of services per head through the creation of these land-uses in wasteland lots, removing interference between the ride and pedestrian in important axes (religious and historical), creating spatial association between the important and historical elements of the neighborhood in order to strengthen the historical and cultural role. The strategies in the socio-cultural dimension are including reduction and prevention of crime and social harm, especially among young people, empowering the cultural diversity of immigrants through the training socio-cultural skills to strengthen the authentic identity of the neighborhood, organizing public spaces to increase the interactions of residents, promotion and creation of cultural and artistic spaces in the neighborhood based on the presence of old well-known people. The strategies in the economic dimension are also including use of the potential historical tourism and events in the neighborhood, creating employment opportunities by using entrepreneurship and supporting local small businesses, organizing and encouraging domestic jobs in order to raise the economic potential of residents. The strategies in the environmental dimension are including elimination of environmental pollution (air, visual, and audio) and development of neighborhood health, development of green and lively spaces. The strategies in management-institutional dimension are including creation and strengthening of informal people's institutions, definition and realization of small-scale neighborhood governance based on non-governmental organization, capacity building and empowerment of residents in order to participate in the administration of neighborhood affairs, capacity building and empowerment of urban managers in creating transparent, responsive,  accountable, and efficient management.
Conclusion
Community-led regeneration is based on local community involvement introduced as an innovative and new method for the current time. This approach seeks to exploit the capitals and knowledge of local community residents to benefit from solutions within these communities, and responses to their problems in order to enhance the possibility of success in urban regeneration projects and ultimately sustainable development. Local people's participation in urban regeneration projects increases local capitals, identity and sense of community, development of skills and opportunities, collective ownership, as well as knowledge, awareness and collective learning. As a result, it increases the quality of life, the sense of satisfaction, the welfare and the prosperity of these communities. Therefore, in this research, the developmental insufficiency in the Akhund neighborhood has been applied to be solved using community-led regeneration approach.
First, the needs and neighborhood problems have been identified using residents' opinions. Second, the visioning statement has been created, and strategies have been adopted to achieve the goals and objectives of the neighborhood. Third, the privileges have been given to these strategies and the best strategies selected in various dimensions. Ultimately policies and action plans have been formulated for them.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Strategic Planning
  • community-led regeneration
  • Local Community
  • akhund neighborhood
  • Qazvin City
بحرینی، سید حسین، ایزدی، محمد سعید و مهرانوش مفیدی، 1392، «رویکردها و سیاست‌های نوسازی شهری (از بازسازی تا بازآفرینی شهری پایدار)»، فصلنامة مطالعات شهری، شمارة 9، صص 17-30.

پوراحمد، احمد، حبیبی، کیومرث و مهناز کشاورز، 1389، «سیر تحول مفهوم‌شناسی بازآفرینی شهری به عنوان رویکردی نو در بافت‌های فرسودۀ شهری»، فصلنامة مطالعات شهر ایرانی-اسلامی، شمارة 1، صص 73-92.

حاجی‌پور، خلیل، 1385، «برنامه‌ریزی محله-مبنا رهیافتی کارآمد در ایجاد مدیریت شهری پایدار»، نشریة هنرهای زیبا، شمارة 26، صص 37-46.

رفیعیان، مجتبی و نریمان جهانزاد، 1394، دگرگونی اندیشه در نظریة برنامه‌ریزی، انتشارات آرمان‌شهر، تهران.

شریف‌زادگان، محمدحسین و بهزاد ملک‌پور اصل، 1392، مبانی نظری و تجارب به‌کارگیری ماتریس تحلیلی سوآت در برنامه‌ریزی استراتژیک توسعة منطقه‌ای، دانشگاه شهیدبهشتی، تهران.

صرافی، مظفر، 1377، «ضرورت دگرگونی در نظریة برنامه‌ریزی توسعة ایران»، مجموعه مقالات همایش پنجاه سال برنامه‌ریزی توسعه در ایران، دفتر تحقیقات و معیارهای فنی، تهران.

محمدنژاد، علی و مظفر صرافی، 1392، «نگاهی دیگر به ظرفیت‌های محلی، بستر مشارکت راستین در برنامه‌ریزی شهری»، نشریة تشکل، شمارة7، صص 28-32.

صرافی، مظفر و همکاران، 1394، پایداری شهر ایرانی (کندوکاو در چالش‌ها و نقش برنامه‌ریزی توسعة شهری)، نشر علم، تهران.

دانش‌پور، زهره، 1387، «معرفی رهیافت گام‌به‌گام مشکل‌یابی- مشکل‌گشایی، پیشنهادی مقدمانی برای آزمون شیوة تدبیرشده (مشکل‌یابی) در شهر تهران»، نشریة هنرهای زیبا، شمارة 36، صص 5-16.

فرجی‌راد، خدر و غلامرضا کاظمیان، 1391، توسعة محلی و منطقه‌ای، از منظر رویکرد نهادی، انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی، تهران.

فریدمن، آوی، 1396، بنیان محله‌های پایدار، ترجمة مرجان‌السادات نعمتی مهر و امیر یداله‌پور،دانشگاه شهیدبهشتی، تهران.

مرکز آمار ایران، 1390، نتایج تفصیلی سرشماری و نفوس مسکن سال 1390، استان قزوین.

مهندسان مشاور شهر و برنامه، 1394، طرح جامع شهر قزوین، وزارت راه و شهرسازی، تهران.

Abu Samah, A., and Aref, F., 2009, Community Development Programmes in Malaysia, Nature and Science, Vol. 7, No. 12, PP. 86-89.

Bahrainy, H., Izadi, M., and Mofidi, M., 2013, The Approaches and Policies of Urban Renewal from "Urban Reconstruction" to "Sustainable Urban Regeneration", Urban Studies Journal, No. 9, PP. 13-17. (In Persian)

Beider, H., 2007, Neighborhood Renewal and Housing Markets: Community Engagement in the US and UK, Wiley-Blackwell, United States.

Bevilacqua, C., Calabrò, J., and Maione, C., 2013, The Role of Community in Urban Regeneration: Mixed Use Areas Approach in USA, Proceedings REAL CORP 2013 Tagungsband, 20-23 May 2013, Rome, Italy.

Breuer, D., 2002, Community Participation in Local Health and Sustainable Development; Approaches and Techniques, European Sustainable Development and Health, Series 4, World Health Organization, Europe.

Clark, J., and Wise, N., 2018, Urban Renewal, Community and Participation, Theory, Policy and Practice, Publisher: Springer; 1st Ed.

Consulting Engineers City and Plan, 2015, Qazvin Comprehensive Plan, Ministry of Roads and Urban Planning, Tehran. (In Persian)

Daneshpour, Z., 2008, Introducing an Incremental 'Problem- Finding- Problem- Solving' Approach - a Preliminary Proposal to Examine the 'Problem- Finding' Approach in Tehran, Honarha Ye Ziba Architecture and Planning Journal, No 36, PP. 5-16. (In Persian)

Darchen, S., and Ladouceur, E., 2013, Social Sustainability in Urban Regeneration Practice: A Case Study of the Fortitude Valley Renewal Plan in Brisbane, Australian Planner, Taylor and Francis.

Evans, G., 2005, Measure for Measure: Evaluating the Evidence of Culture’s Contribution to Regeneration, Urban Studies, Vol. 42, No. 5 and 6, PP. 959–983.

Farajirad, KH., and Kazemian, GH., 2012, Local and Regional Development: An Institutional Perspective, Jahade Daneshghai Publications, Tehran. (In Persian)

Friedman, A., 2017, Fundamentals of Sustainable Neighborhoods, Interpreted by M., Nemati Mehr and A., Yadollahpour, Shahid Beheshti University Publication, Tehran. (In Persian)

Hajipour, KH., 2006, Community-Based Planning, An Efficient Approach for Sustainable Urban Management, Honarha Ye Ziba Architecture and Planning Journal, No. 26, PP. 37-46. (In Persian)

Halsall, J. P., Oberoi, R, Cook, I. G., and Wankhade, P., 2013, Understanding Community Governance: A Global Perspective, International Journal of Asian Social Science, Vol. 3, No. 5, PP. 1112-1127.

Izadi, M., Moshaver, M., Sajjadzadeh, H., and Tavassoli, M., 2018, Locating Urban Catalyst Projects in Inefficient Urban Textures with the Regeneration Approach: A Case Study on Tehran, Journal of History Culture and Art Research, Vol. 7, No. 3, PP. 136-151.

Jin, E., Lee, W., and Kim, D., 2018, Does Resident Participation in An Urban Regeneration Project Improve Neighborhood Satisfaction: A Case Study of “Amichojang” in Busan, South Korea, Sustainability, Vol. 10, No. 10, P. . PP.1-13

Jones, P., and Evans, J., 2013, Urban Regeneration in the UK. Sage, London.

Lee, J. H., and Lim, S., 2018, An Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Approach for Sustainable Assessment of Economy-Based and Community-Based Urban Regeneration: The Case of South Korea, Sustainability, Vol. 10, No. 12, PP.1-14.

Magalhaes, C., 2015, 'Urban Regeneration' in International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, James D. Wright (Edt), 2nd Edition, Vol. 24, Publisher: Elsevier, Place of Publication: Oxford, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-08-097086-8.74031-1.

Mattessich, P., and Monsey, M., 2004, Community Buildings: What Makes It Work, St. Paul, MN: Wilder Foundation.

Mccarthy, J., 2007, Partnership, Collaborative Planning and Urban Regeneration, Ashgate Publishing Company Ashgate, Aldershot, England.

Mcdonald, S., Malys, N., and Maliene, V., 2009, Urban Regeneration for Sustainable Communities: A Case Study, Technological and Economic Development of Economy, Vol. 15, No. 1, PP. 49-59.

Mohammad Nezhad, A., and Sarrafi, M., 2013, Another Look At Local Capacities, A True Participation In Urban Planning, Tashakol, No 7, PP. 28-32. (In Persian)

Nikkhah, H. A., and Redzuan, M., 2009, Participation As a Medium of Empowerment in Community Development, European Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 11, N. 1, PP. 170-176.

Perdikogianni, I., 2007, From Space to Place: The Role of Space and Experience in the Construction of Place, Proceedings 6th International Space Syntax Symposium, İstanbul.

Pourahmad, A., Habibi, K., and Keshavarz, M., 2010, New Approaches of  the Process of Conceptualization of the Regeneration  of  the Urban  Distressed Area, Journal of Studies on Iranian Islamic City, Vol. 1, No. 1, PP. 73 -92. (In Persian)

Rafieian, M., and Jahanzad, N., 2015, The Thought Transformation on Planning Theory, Armanshahr Publication,Tehran. (In Persian)

Roberts, P., 2008, 'The Evolution, Definition and Purpose of Urban Regeneration' in Urban Regeneration, A Handbook, Peter Roberts and Hugh Sykes (Eds). London: Sage.

Rubbo, V., 2009, Urban Regeneration and Integration in Turin (Italy): The Example of Porta Palazzo/ The Gate Project, The Netherlands: FORUM, Institute or Multicultural Affairs.

Sarrafi, M. et al., 2015, Sustainability of Iranian Cities: A Query on the Role f Planner, Elm Publication,Tehran. (In Persian)

Sarrafi, M., 1998, The Necessity for Transformation in Iran's Development Planning Theory, Fifty Years of Planning in Iran. Conference Proceedings of the Fifty Years of Development Planning in Iran, Office of Research and Technical Criteria, Tehran.  (In Persian)

Schuurmans, A., Dyrbøl, S., and Guay, F., 2019, Buildings in Urban Regeneration in Sustainable Cities Authenticity, Ambition and Dream Book, Almusaed A., and Almssad, A. (Edt), Published: Intechopen, London.

Sharifzadegan, M. H., and Malekpour, B., 2013, Theoretical Basis and Experiences  in Applying SWOT Analytical Matrix in Regional Development Strategic Planning, Shahid Beheshti University Publication,Tehran. (In Persian)

Smith, M. K., 2011, Neighborhoods and Regeneration, Theory, Practice, Issues, The Encyclopedia of Informal Education, www.infed.org/community/neighbourhoods and regeneration.htm.

Statistics Center of Iran (2011). Detailed results of the census and population of housing in 2011, Qazvin province. (In Persian)

Tallon, A., 2010, Urban Regeneration in the UK, First Published 2010 by Routledge Taylor and Francis, London and NewYork.

Thwala, W. D., 2009, Experiences and Challenges of Community Participation in Urban Renewal Projects: The Case of Johannesburg, South Africa,Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, Vol. 14, No. 2, PP. 37–54.

UNEP, 2004, Guidelines for Urban Regeneration in the Mediterranean Region, Priority Actions Program Regional Activity Centre Split, January 2004.

Wates, N., 2008, The Community Planning Event Manual; How to Use Collaborative Planning and Urban Design Events to Improve Your Environment, Publish, Earth Scan, London.