تحلیل فضایی تاب‌آوری شهری در محله‌های بخش مرکزی شهر تبریز

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی - کاربردی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری دانشگاه خوارزمی

2 دانشجوی دکتری تخصصی جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری دانشگاه خوارزمی

چکیده

تحلیل تاب‌آوری در محله‌های بخش مرکزی شهر تبریز در ابعاد اجتماعی، اقتصادی، کالبدی-زیرساختی و اکولوژیکی به‌منظور دستیابی به راهکارهای مناسب مدیریت مخاطرات محیطی از اهداف این پژوهش است. شناخت وضعیت تاب‌آوری محله‌های بخش مرکزی شهر و دستیابی به عوامل تاب‌آورساز با توجه به قدمت، فرسودگی و نارسایی زیرساختی و پهنه‌بندی سطح تاب‌آوری از ضرورت‌های برنامه‌ریزی و مدیریت شهری است. این پژوهش با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و با هدف شناخت وضعیت تاب‌آوری محله‌های 24‌ گانة بخش مرکزی شهر تبریز در ابعاد چهارگانة تاب‌آوری انجام شده است. شاخص‌های انتخاب‌شده با روش‌های ELECTRE و AHP و مصاحبه با متخصصان شهری در محله‌های بخش مرکزی شهر تبریز جمع‌آوری شده است. یافته‌های پژوهش نشان می‌دهد ابعاد کالبدی، اجتماعی و اقتصادی به‌ترتیب پایین‌ترین امتیاز را در میان چهار بعد سنجش میزان تاب‌آوری دارند. همچنین محله‌های منصور، اهراب، مقصودیه و دانشسرا بیشترین میزان تاب‌آوری و محله‌های گجیل، باغ‌شمال، مارالان و سرخاب پایین‌ترین سطح تاب‌آوری را در میان محله‌های 24گانه دارند. ناپایداری ابعاد کالبدی و اقتصادی بافت منجر به ناپایداری دیگر ابعاد تاب‌آوری شده است؛ بنابراین رویکرد تاب‌آورسازی کالبدی و اقتصادی محله‌های پایدار با راهبرد تاب‌آورسازی اقتصادمدار می‌تواند نسخه‌ای مؤثر برای ارتقای تاب‌آوری محله‌های بافت قدیم باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Spatial Analysis of Resilience of Old Neighborhoods in Central Areas of Tabriz City

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Shamaei 1
  • Farzaneh Sasanpour 1
  • Rahman Ali Hosseini 2
1 Associate Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Kharazmi, Tehran, Iran
2 PhD Student in Geography and Urban Planning, University of Kharazmi, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Cities and metropolitan areas represent dense and complex systems of interconnected services. As such, they are faced with an increasing number of issues that lead to disaster risk. As part of an ideal, strategies and policies can be developed to deliberation to render cities resilient and livable. In the new era, due to the rapid population growth and rapid growth of cities, urban neighborhoods have not had the opportunity to adapt to the new needs of urban neighborhoods, and have been largely unsuccessful in meeting the diverse needs and demands of citizens, failing to deliver the necessary problems. The emergence of gaps and the lack of homogeneity in urban neighborhoods are consequently increased with dissatisfaction of a wide range of urban residents in their residential environment. Central Context Neighborhoods also emerged as a result of changes in the modern era, with people moving to new neighborhoods with a modern shape and structure outside the central contexts.  The old neighborhoods within the central texture of Tabriz, is considered the heartbeat of the city. With diverse functions of social life and identity and vitality, the neighborhoods have now lost their function and quality at many levels, and in some cases inefficient urban textures are at risk and vulnerable to social harm. They are vulnerable to natural and man-made hazards due to the age and exhaustion of building materials, low-winding, winding passages and infrastructure. This situation reduces the likelihood of crisis relief and resilience in times of crisis and emergencies.
Methodology
This descriptive-analytical study aimed to identify the status of resilience in four dimensions of resilience (physical, economic, social and environmental) and its sub-indices, using ELECTRE and AHP methods. The data have been gathered by questionnaires to have the views of experts in the central part of Tabriz. We have used statistical sources, maps, studies and questionnaires to gather information of each of the indices.  ArcGIS and Excel applications were used to analyze the data. Then, the information obtained was evaluated using the Electrode Method for each neighborhood. In order to gain the weight of the indices, the Hierarchical Analysis System (AHP) using Expert Choice software and the views of experts and related experts were used to enter information into the Electre Solver software. The community of experts interviewed was used according to their consensus.
Results and discussion   
The Tabriz City as the study area has 24 districts. The old maps of the neighborhoods, the old barracks of the city, the existing historical documents and maps and the reports of the studies of the master plan of Tabriz are based on the 1919 localities. At first, the four dimensions of resilience were studied with the help of library documents and resources and the views of other researchers and experts, and the indices are needed to measure resilience. Finally, the final score for the resilience level of each neighborhood was obtained. The results obtained from the Electra model show that the leveling and overall status of neighborhoods in terms of resilience level, high level of resilience in Mansour, Aharab, Maghsoudieh and Daneshara neighborhoods, critical condition of Gajil, Baghshamal, Maralan and Serkhab  and non-resilience of Vijoyeh, Davahy and Garaghaj come in handy. Socio-economic dimensions achieved the lowest score among the four dimensions of resilience. This necessitates more attention to the physical refurbishment of urban buildings.  
Conclusion
It can be concluded that based on field studies and observations, high age of buildings and burnout, poor quality of buildings, impermeability and low width of passageways, high building and population density due to fragmentation and other components of urban resilience measurement are all inefficient in most neighborhoods. Instability of the physical and economic dimensions of the textures has led to other instabilities of resilience. The physical and economic resilience approach of sustainable neighborhoods with the economic upbringing strategy can be an effective prescription for enhancing resilience of the old texture neighborhoods and  to overcome this situation.   

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • central city
  • Urban Resilience
  • Spatial Analysis
  • Neighborhood
  • Tabriz City
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