کاربست روش مرور سیستماتیک ادبیات در شناسایی ابعاد، مؤلفه‌ها و شاخص‌های شهر خلاق

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی - بنیادی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشکدة مدیریت دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار دانشکدة مدیریت دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 استاد دانشکدة جغرافیا دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

4 دکتری آینده‌پژوهی دانشکدة مدیریت دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

شهر خلاق محصول هزارة سوم و تحولات آن است. بهره‌گیری از مؤلفه‌ها و شاخص‌های این نظریه به رشد و شکوفایی اقتصادی، اجتماعی، فرهنگی و محیطی شهرها کمک می‌کند. بر این مبنا، هدف پژوهش حاضر شناخت ابعاد، مؤلفه‌ها و شاخص‌های شهر خلاق براساس رویکرد مرور سیستماتیک ادبیات است. پژوهش حاضر به روش مرور سیستماتیک ادبیات انجام شده است که شامل مراحل تعریف، جست‌وجو، انتخاب، تحلیل و سنتز است. فرایند جست‌وجوی منابع مرتبط با پژوهش در مردادماه 1396 به مدت 31 روز صورت گرفت. جست‌وجوی اولیه به شناسایی 114 منبع منتهی شد. از این میان، 71 منبع با موضوع پژوهش هم‌خوانی داشت که درنهایت 22 منبع از آن‌ها برای تحلیل نهایی انتخاب شد. بازة زمانی منابع انتخابی سال‌های 2000-2016 است. یافته‌های مرور سیستماتیک نشان می‌دهد بیشترین موارد مرتبط، به سال‌های 2007-2012 مربوط است که 11 منبع از پایگاه داده پژوهش را شامل می‌شود (57 درصد). به بیان دیگر، میزان مطالعات انتخابی برای سال‌های 2009، 2010، 2011، 2012 و 2007 به‌ترتیب 17، 13، 9، 9 و 9 درصد است. 68 درصد منابع کمی و 32 درصد نیز کیفی هستند. شهر خلاق درمجموع هفت بعد فضایی، اجتماعی، اقتصادی، فرهنگی، انسانی، ساختاری و نهادی و 28 مؤلفه و 141 شاخص دارد. بعد فضایی نیز دارای 6 مؤلفه و 28 شاخص است. بعد اقتصادی نیز 3 مؤلفه و 19 شاخص دارد. بعد اجتماعی دارای 3 مؤلفه و 19 شاخص و بعد فرهنگی نیز دارای 3 مؤلفه و 18 شاخص است. بعد ساختاری 7 مؤلفه و 22 شاخص و بعد انسانی، 3 مؤلفه و 16 شاخص دارد. بعد نهادی نیز دارای 3 مؤلفه و 19 شاخص است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Literature Systematic Review Method Implementation in Dimensions, Components and Indicators Identification of the Creative City

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mojtaba Amiri 1
  • Mohammad Mehdi Zolfagharzadeh 2
  • Karamat Allah Ziyari 3
  • Hasan Ashtari 4
1 Associate Professor of Management, Faculty of Management, Tehran University
2 Assistant Professor of Management, Faculty of Management, Tehran University
3 Professor of Geography, Faculty of Geography, Tehran University
4 PhD of Futures Studies, Faculty of Management, Tehran University
چکیده [English]

Introduction
The creative city is the product of the third millennium and its developments. Based on this theory, creative people are considered key drivers of urban and regional growth. The creative city emphasizes on components such as technology, talent, diversity, and social - cultural tolerance. To realize such a city, it is necessary to consider four important advantages for the cities of Iran. First, the creative city can play an effective role in country's economic growth and prosperity through the commercialization of art and cultural industries rich market such as handicrafts, music, cinema, ... the artistic and historical centers of Iranian civilization, Iranian and Islamic architectural masterpieces, preservation and attraction of the elites and the intellectual and intellectual assets utilization of talents, as well as the transformation of their ideas and creativity into commercially valuable products. Secondly, it can add to the country cultural richness and diversity through the mechanisms such as preventing the elites escape by creating a suitable and tolerant-based context (maximum attraction and minimal elimination), the elite's attraction of different countries and religions, especially the Islamic countries talents from different sects and religions. Third, it could add a new dimension to the country's economy and accelerate stagnation outbreak fields. Fourthly, creative thinking and creative themes do not require investment and bureaucratic structures as compared to other economic sectors and will never be subject to cruel sanctions. Accordingly, the present research purpose is creative city explanation based on its dimensions, components and indicators in order to understand many aspects.
Methodology
The present study was conducted using the literature systematic review, which includes the stages of definition, search, selection, analysis and synthesis. The review first step is to identify the review field before the actual search. Word selection has been searched based on the main components of theorists and researchers such as Florida (2002 and 2005), Landry (2000) and Sasaki (2008 and 2010) (Tolerance, Talent, Technology, Diversity, Innovation). In the second step, it has been done the search for resources. The search process was conducted in August 2017 for 31 days. In this process, we have been searching for dissertations, books, articles, statistical reports and research projects related to the creative city and its dimensions, components and indicators. It is worth noting that these resources were published in the 2017-2000 period. The list of valid resource references has been monitored as part of a detailed search for additional literature based on snowball search and manual search. All references such as title, authors, general lines, abstracts and keywords information have been transmitted to the Endnote software version X7.4 and have been removed duplicate results. The third step was to allocate resources and full text of the downloaded articles. Titles, abstracts and key words of downloaded sources all were independently double-monitored by authors for agreement and consensus. Then, the full text of the qualified sources was carefully studied again for further and more accurate examination. The fourth stage is the analysis. The full text of the retrieved articles was evenly divided among the evaluators, who consistently analyzed the papers independently. The fifth step of the research is to synthesize. The authors synthesized the data into the three categories using selective coding processes (i.e., integration and refinement of concepts and themes).
Results and discussion
The initial search has led to 114 cases based on the research topic, then, 71 items were fully evaluated. Finally, the resource 22 was selected for final analysis. The data have been selected between 2016-2000 time intervals. The literature systematic review findings show that the most relevant cases relate to 2012-2007, including 11 of the research databases (57%). In other words, the percentage of selected studies for 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2007 are 17%, 13%, 9%, 9% and 9%, respectively. About 68% of the data is quantitative and 32% qualitative. The results clearly indicate that most studies are related to the EU and the United States. In short, approximately 77% of studies have been conducted in EU and US. The creative city has a dimensions seven including spatial, social, economic, cultural, human, structural and institutional, components 28 and indicators 141.  The spatial dimension has six components including accessibility, city representation, livability, physical environment, branding and amenities; each of the components has indicators 3, 5, 5, 7, 3 and 5, respectively. Economic dimension has three key components including creative economy, innovation, cultural economy; each component has indicators 6, 5 and 8, respectively. The social dimension has key three components: tolerance and tolerance, social atmosphere and values and norms, which have indicators 8, 8 and 3 respectively. The cultural dimension has main components four: cultural environment, tourism, norms and values, and cultural participation; each of the components has indicators 6, 3, 6 and 3 respectively. Structural dimension has main components seven including corruption perception, freedom of speech, information and communication technology, socio-cultural infrastructure, creativity sponsor infrastructure, entrepreneurship and financial infrastructure; each of the components has indicators 1, 2, 5, 6, 1, 2, and 5 respectively. The human dimension has main components three, including creative core, bohemian, and talent; each of the components has indicators 8, 1 and 7 respectively. The institutional dimension has main components three, including the institutional environment, incentives and regulations, and the general and political framework; each of the components has indicators 6, 3 and 10 respectively.
Conclusion
Many studies have been carried out in creative cities and their locations. Nevertheless, there is a serious vacuum on the creative city detailed and multidimensional study. Studies have focused on the creative city analysis in terms of technology, talent, tolerance and diversity, or creative and cultural economics. This neglects attention to the creative city multifaceted and complex dimensions in urban planning. Accordingly, the present study has identified the creative city various aspects of the Accordingly, the present study has identified the creative city various aspects include of spatial, economic, social, structural, cultural, human and institutional using the systematic review method. The use of these components and indicators in the country cities can provide a platform for the prosperity and commercialization of their rational, human and cultural heritage assets.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • creative city
  • Dimensions
  • Components
  • Literature Systematic Review
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