تحلیل فضایی-زمانی فرم شهری در کلان‌شهرهای ایران

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی - کاربردی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری سنجش از دور و سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

رشد شتابان جمعیت شهری جهان در چند دهۀ اخیر، سبب گسترش فیزیکی و تغییرات اساسی در فرم شهرها شده است. فرم شهری به‌عنوان آرایش فضایی عناصر فیزیکی شهر، آثار معناداری بر فعالیت و سلامت جسمی و روانی، الگوهای حمل‌ونقل، تعاملات اجتماعی، کیفیت زیست‌محیطی، تغییرات اقلیمی و بهزیستی انسان دارد؛ بنابراین هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر، تحلیل فضایی-زمانی فرم شهری در کلان‌شهرهای ایران است. داده‌های جمعیتی و تصاویر ماهواره‌ای لندست برای استخراج تحولات جمعیت و اراضی شهری در هشت کلان‌شهر تهران، مشهد، اصفهان، شیراز، تبریز، کرج، قم و اهواز در سه مقطع زمانی 1366، 1379 و 1396 استفاده شد. متریک‌های سیمای سرزمین برای کمی‌سازی فرم شهری، تحلیل مؤلفه‌های اصلی برای شناسایی ابعاد فرم شهری و تحلیل خوشه برای دسته‌بندی کلان‌شهرها براساس ویژگی‌های فرم شهری به‌کار برده شد. یافته‌های پژوهش نشان داد در اغلب کلان‌شهرهای ایران، میان رشد جمعیت و رشد اراضی شهری، تناسبی وجود ندارد. در سه دهۀ اخیر، کلان‌شهرهای شیراز و تبریز بیشترین میزان پراکنده‌رویی شهری را تجربه کرده‌اند. نتایج تحلیل مؤلفه‌های اصلی، سه بعد شکل، چشم‌انداز و تراکم را برای فرم کلان‌شهرهای ایران شناسایی کرد. کلان‌شهرهای کرج و شیراز با ویژگی‌های پیچیدگی نسبتاً پایین در شکل پچ‌های شهری، پیچیدگی بالا در چشم‌انداز شهری، تعدد پچ‌های کوچک، ارزش پایین متریک میانگین فاصلۀ میان پچ‌های مجاور، تراکم بالای پچ‌های شهری و سهم پایین‌تر بزرگ‌ترین پچ شهری، به رشد پراکنده و بی‌نظم متمایل هستند. کلان‌شهرهای تهران و قم با ویژگی‌های پیچیدگی پایین در شکل پچ‌های شهری، پیچیدگی نسبتاً بالا در چشم‌انداز شهری، تراکم پایین پچ‌های شهری و سهم بالای بزرگ‌ترین پچ از مساحت کلان‌شهر، متمایل به فرم شهری فشرده‌تر و منظم‌تر در مقایسه با سایر کلان‌شهرهای ایران هستند. سایر کلان‌شهرها به لحاظ فرم شهری، حد واسط الگوی فشرده و منظم کلان‌شهر تهران و الگوی پراکنده و بی‌نظم کلان‌شهر کرج قرار می‌گیرند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatio-temporal analysis of urban form in metropolises of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Mansourian 1
  • Maryam Naghdizadegan 2
  • Zinat Gomeh 2
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Geography, University of Tehran, Iran
2 University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

With the increase in the number of people living in urban areas, urban expansion is increasing all over the world. The rapid expansion of cities as a major factor in the evolution of urban forms in recent decades has become an important issue in spatial planning and urban management. Spatio-temporal measurement and analysis of urban forms can provide a good basis for making decisions about cities and regions with rapid physical growth. Urban form as spatial configuration of fixed elements in metropolitan area has significant effects on physical and mental activity and health, transportation patterns, social interactions, environmental quality, climate change, and human well-being. Accordingly, the main purpose of this study is to analyze the Spatio-temporal evolution of urban form in metropolitan areas of Iran.The General Census of Population and Housing from 1986 to 2016 and Landsat satellite images in 1987,2000 and 2017 have been used in this study. The general population and housing censuses were used to study demographic changes and Landsat satellite imageries were used to generate urban land maps in the study area. 24 Landsat TM and OLI images were used to generate urban land maps using the Maximum Proximity algorithm in ENVI software.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban Growth
  • Urban form
  • Landscape metrics
  • Metropolis
  • Iran
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