عنوان مقاله [English]
A B S T R A C T
The present study is aimed at explaining the spatial organization of the Khuzestan province system Settlement with emphasis on the role of oil. Oil has been the primary mechanism of formation of the Khuzestan Space organization for the last hundred years and has influenced other mechanisms. It is seen primarily as urbanization and polarization of population and activity. In the analytical field, firstly, using the spatial organization analysis models such as the class difference model and the nearest neighborhood model as well as the first urban indicators, the spatial organization of Khuzestan province is examined, and then to measure the impact of oil on the spatial organization. Housing System of Khuzestan Province Indicators their spatial distribution maps were prepared and analyzed in the form of three selected economic, social and physical variables. A system of information flows and communications and services and population movements under the influence of state bureaucracy have divided the province into the eastern and western or the oil and non-oil divisions. Spatial disequilibrium patterns in the Khuzestan province's oil-affected Settlement system in urban areas, severe imbalances in urban hierarchies, the weak role of middle cities, and thus the concentration of services commensurate with the distribution of deprived and marginalized populations of marginal and marginal cities. The spatial balance in the villages is the emptying of the villages in the eastern half of the province and the concentration of large villages in the western half.
The production of space is influenced by economic, social, environmental, and other factors that change the way it responds to these conditions. Consequently, the specificity of the space produced in countries with oil-based economies and, in other words, rentier countries, will differ from those in non-oil countries. In a way that in oil-related cities due to completely different economic and social conditions, the increase in oil revenue from these countries, especially in the mid-twentieth century, has led to the concentration of capital and the subsequent growth of cities and so on. The increase in infrastructure, the process of construction, and the formation of regulated laws have brought these cities into a new phase (Witlox and Derudder, 2007,13). The Gulf states are examples of the lengths of urban space evolution. Compared to the West, it has declined (while the corresponding evolution in European cities from the late Middle Ages to the Middle Ages) If the first wave of urbanization in Qatar in the second half of the twentieth century coincided with the discovery of oil and the accumulation of hidden capital in its cities, including Doha (wiedmann et al.2012), with the discovery of oil, the type of residence And urbanization has also undergone major changes. French researcher Ms Pauline Lavanye, whose dissertation on Cities and Companies of Iran and the British Oil Company, argues: "Modernity has come to Iran through Khuzestan and through modern urbanization. Because there was no new urbanization before, and this kind of urbanization was created by the establishment of the oil industry. Urbanization has a non-liaison relationship with its surrounding area and in other words new urbanization is largely conditional. Is imposed and alienated (Costello, 181368) Spatial Analysis of Variables and Indicators of Measuring the Impact of Oil Industry on the Spatial Organization of the Housing System of Khuzestan Province
Extent of the study area from both the lack of cooperation of the Ministry of Petroleum and the confidentiality of statistics, on the other hand, led to consider indices that are directly related to the oil industry and oil activities, and in particular, the statistics and information needed from other sources. It is analytical. Theoretical perspectives and previous studies in this area and the Ministry of Petroleum documents on the designation of oilfield areas in the field of descriptive studies are used. And in the analytical field, firstly, using the spatial organization analysis models such as the class difference model and the closest neighborhood model as well as the first urban indicators, the spatial organization of Khuzestan province is examined, and then to assess the impact of oil on the organization. Space of Khuzestan Provincial Settlement Indicators: Percentage of Settlement - Number of International and Domestic Provinces - Unemployment Rate - Number of Residents Abandoned - Residence Ownership - Number of Active Sports Clubs in Khuzestan Province Industry is selected in three economic, social and physical variables The maps of their spatial distribution in the environment (Arc GIS) were prepared and analyzed. The study area is Khuzestan province with an area of 64057 km2 in southwestern Iran near the Persian Gulf of arvand River and is the center of Iranian oil extraction. The province consists of 27 cities, 67 districts, 76 cities and 144 villages to study the role of oil in the Khuzestan province's oil-rich southern areas such as Masjed Soleiman, Abadan, Ahvaz, Aghajari and Omidieh Haftkel .The non-oil areas of the province have also been affected by the oil industry, which has been addressed in this study.
Results and discussion
Based on the analysis of the presented models and their analysis, it was found that the provincial spatial organization has been disrupted and disorganized and the spatial balance has been intensified. This section seeks to answer the main research question to what extent. Khuzestan province's spatial organization imbalance due to oil industry impacts and how oil industry flow has caused spatial imbalance in Khuzestan province
The state is at the heart of the issues of spatial inequality because of its multifunctional nature, because the spatial dominance of the state can provide constraints and opportunities to form a particular behavior such as changing the pattern of production and consumption in the population under its control. Bring. In fact, the government has exacerbated inequality in the provincial space agency by monopolizing oil revenues and allocating resources to specific areas in Khuzestan province. Services and facilities, equipment and facilities dedicated to the oil-rich areas on a wider scale to the provincial capital such as: airports, sports clubs, universities, schools, hospitals, and the transfer of residential properties to their employees and large industrial corporations play an important role in The polarization of population and activity has resulted in the division of the province into northern and southern halves. However, in another subdivision, this can be seen in the province's division into two eastern halves (dependent on oil industry activities) and western halves (dependent on water and soil resources).
In general, the effects of oil on Khuzestan spatial organization can be explained in several sections. Dividing the province into oil and non-oil divisions and continuing agricultural activities as an effective weighting for space equilibrium. The activities of the oil industry in the field of clubs, the construction of sports fields, the holding of league and division competitions through national and national networks and the absence of such activities in non-oil areas have affected the polarization of the population. Increasing unemployment in oil-rich areas and emptying of villages in these areas are significantly related to oil industry activities and services (employment-oil relationship).
Construction and development of universities, research institutes, schools, stadiums, airports and airports, refineries and so on. Concentration of population and economic activity on the margins of these locations highlight the role of physical factors in the integration of space and consequently The balance has resulted in the province's spatial imbalance. Government involvement in the construction of settlements, as well as the migration of jobseekers to oil-rich areas, have reduced the percentage of residential ownership and exacerbated the spatial-social inequality in the province.
There is no funding support.
All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.