تحلیل فضایی تأثیر ظرفیت‌های اقتصادی و کالبدی مناطق سه‌گانه شهر قزوین بر بروز تخلفات ساختمانی

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی - کاربردی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشکدة هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه آموزشی شهرسازی، دانشکدة هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 استاد گروه آموزشی شهرسازی، دانشکدة هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

کنترل ساخت‌وسازهای شهری به‌منظور ادارة بهینة شهر به‌کمک ضوابط ساخت‌وساز شهری صورت می‌گیرد، اما با وجود اقدامات گوناگون مدیریت شهری، سالانه موارد چشمگیری از تخلفات ساختمانی در شهرها گزارش می‌شود. درواقع می‌توان تخلفات ساختمانی را رعایت‌نکردن ضوابط و مقررات ساخت‌وساز شهری تعریف کرد که کیفیت زندگی در شهرها را تهدید می‌کند. هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی ارتباط عوامل اقتصادی و کالبدی و تعداد و میزان تخلفات ساختمانی در شهر قزوین است تا با شناسایی عوامل تأثیرگذار بر هریک از انواع تخلفات ساختمانی شناخت بهتری از وضعیت موجود تخلفات ساختمانی حاصل شود و زمینة مناسب برای برنامه‌ریزی‌های آتی فراهم آید. پژوهش حاضر توصیفی-تحلیلی است که در آن برای بررسی تأثیر الگوهای فضایی حاکم بر شهر بر تخلفات از روش هم‌پوشانی وزن‌دار در نرم‌افزار GIS استفاده شده است. براساس نتایج، میان عوامل اقتصادی و کالبدی و تخلفات ساختمانی ارتباط معناداری وجود دارد. عوامل اقتصادی رابطه‌ای مستقیم با تعداد تخلف بنای مازاد بر مجوز و مجموع مساحت تخلف احداث مازاد بر سطح و تغییر کاربری دارد، اما رابطة آن با تعداد تخلف بنای بدون مجوز معکوس است. همچنین تعداد تخلفات احداث مازاد بر سطح و تغییر کاربری با عوامل کالبدی رابطة مستقیم و تعداد تخلف مازاد بر تراکم با عوامل کالبدی رابطه‌ای معکوس دارد؛ به‌طوری‌که هرچه تناسب کالبدی در یک منطقه بیشتر باشد، تعداد تخلف مازاد بر تراکم کمتر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatial Analysis of the Impacts Economic and Physical Capacities of Triple Areas have on Violations of Construction, Qazvin City

نویسندگان [English]

  • Samira Yousefi 1
  • Mojtaba Rafieian 2
  • Ali Akbar Taghvaea 3
1 MA in Urban Planning, Faculty of Arts and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University
2 Associate Prof. of Urban Planning, Department of Urban Design and Planning, faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University
3 Professor of Urban Planning, Department of Urban Design and Planning, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Urban construction control is in line with the urban optimal management and its sustainable development, mainly through urban construction regulations. Despite various measures of urban management, such as determining the legal guarantee for compliance with the rules and regulations there are reported significant instances of urban construction violations every year. In fact, construction violations can be defined as not executing urban construction regulations that threaten the quality of life in cities and cause many problems in the city. Today's failure to comply with urban regulations in developing countries has become a problem that threatens quality of life in cities, causing a crisis in urban environments, urban visual aesthetics, energy consumption, and so on. Violations of urban construction can cause many problems such as wasting national capital, failure to respond to the infrastructure, negative impact on the implementation of urban development projects, failure of plans to achieve desired goals, the decline of the visual values and the city's image, the decline of environmental values, the unfair distribution of urban resources. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between economic and physical factors of Qazvin city with construction violations in order to find out some causes that have an effect on the construction violations.
Methodology
According to the research topic, this research has a descriptive-analytic methodology. Therefore, weighted overlay method in Geographic Information System (GIS) software has been used to investigate the effect of spatial patterns of the city on constructions violations. Thus, at first, the research indicators are specified in both economic and physical sectors and prioritized and weighed with Expert Choice software, then, based on the preliminary maps and using GIS , economic and urban capacity maps were prepared and were compared with the number and area of construction violations to determine the type of relationship between each of the factors with various types of construction violations.  
Information on construction violations in the city of Qazvin shows that in 2016 there were 2319 cases of construction violations in the municipality, the largest of which is in region 3 also, the highest number of violations related to violation of land use change. The results showed that, in terms of experts, among the economic variables studied, the price of the building and among the physical variables, the number of building floors had the highest influence on construction violations. In terms of economic capacity, region 2 has the highest level and region 1 has the lowest level. In the physical capacity section, region 3 was the most appropriate situation, and region 1 showed the most inadequate condition. On the other hand, results showed that economic and physical factors affect construction violations. The economic factors show a direct relationship with the number of violations of the ceiling on the license and the total area of violation of the construction of surplus on the surface and land use change and the inverse relationship with the violation of the number of monolithic without authorization. Physical factors have a direct relationship with the number of violations of constructing surplus on the surface and land use change. There is an inverse relationship with the number and total area of the violation of the construction of surplus on the density. As the economic and physical capacity maps show that there are obvious physical and economic distinctions between the northern and southern parts of Qazvin city, this indicates the lack of justice in the distribution of facilities and services to different parts of the city and its role in urban problems and abnormalities, including construction irregularities.
Results and discussion
The results obtained in the economic factors section show that the higher the economic capacity of a region, the more the number of building structures on the license is greater. Also, the total area of violation of the construction of surplus on the surface and land use change in areas with high economic capacity is higher. In fact, these types of construction violations take place due to the greater use of space and profitability due to the high value of land in these areas. In the areas where the economic variables studied are in poor conditions, the number of violations of the construction is greater without permission. One of the reasons for this is the high cost of issuing licenses and the inability to pay for it by individuals in these areas. In the section of the physical characteristics, the number of violations of surplus build-up and land use change in areas where buildings have larger blocks and more floors, as well as higher quality are more. The research showed that in the economic factors, building prices and land prices were considered as the most important variables.
Conclusion  
According to the results of the analysis, it can be concluded that in areas where the price of land and building is greater, violation of the ceiling on the license, the construction of surplus on the surface and the land use change are more which means maximum use of land for greater profitability. Therefore, the control of the urban land trading market is of particular importance in reducing spatial disparities and construction violations. The findings of the research showed that in parts with lower physical fitness (more dwelling and less durable buildings, low area and residential units) the number of surplus violations over the density and the total area of violation of the building surplus on the license are greater. This means more demand for construction and change of land use. Therefore, planning urban management to improve the physical condition of areas in line with the type of demand can be effective in reducing these types of violations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • construction violations
  • Spatial Analysis
  • urban construction regulations
  • land use planning
  • Urban laws
  • Qazvin City
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